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ATLANTIS RE-INVESTIGATED- Atlantis defrosted…

March 13, 2015

Started on Saturday, 03 October 2009

ATLANTIS RE-INVESTIGATED
By: Britt Du Fournet

WARNING:

This text is copyrighted. If you wish to copy some parts exceeding 32 words, you should ask me first and aknowledge me a the author of the text…as required by copyrights laws.  Thanks for your consideration.
atlantis-construction-THE-UNEXPLAINED-MYSTERIES-2
Figure 1-Atlantis with its circular cannals

inhabitants of ancient Mexico
Figure 2-Figure 2-Tenochtitlan, Aztec city surrounded by water- Now called Mexico

 

 

 

 

CONTENT:
1)    INTRODUCTION
2)    WHAT IS ATLANTIS:
3)    LANGUAGE OF THE AZTECS
4)    WHAT DO THE ATLANTS LOOKED LIKE:
5)    EXTINCTION OF THE MAMMOTH:
6)    OTHER EXAMPLES OF ATLANTIS IN ANTARCTICA THEORIES:
7)    HAPGOOD: THE EARTH’S SHIFTING CRUST THEORY
8)    BLOOD TYPES repartition on Earth
9)    WHAT DO THEY LOOKED LIKE
10)    NATIVE AMERICAN NOT RELATED TO EAST ASIANS
11)    ATLANTEANS IN IRELAND

INTRODUCTION
Introduction:
This blog is dedicated to investigate  the different theories considering the possible location of the fabled continent of Atlantis.

The story of the frozen mammoth triggered my curiosity. It was discovered in Siberia and was practically intact. It even has undecayed plants in his stomach…I learned that the scientists who studied it, actually cooked and ate some of his meat, and did not get sick (http://mentalfloss.com/article/57100/time-250000-year-old-mammoth-was-served-dinner). An exhibit of frozen mammoth remains that toured the United States in 1992. The official brochure apparently stated : “Portions of a mammoth thousands of years old that was discovered in permafrost were defrosted, cooked and served at a banquet honoring scientists.”   Hapgood ( The Path of the Pole, p. 261)  mention a man who claimed to have eaten mammoth steak in Moscow in the 1930’s (http://www.creationscience.com/onlinebook/FrozenMammoths20.html).

Mamut_NDH_2

It would take a lot of time to freeze an entire mammoth!. An animal bigger than an African elephant! Frozen in an instant, before any decomposition set in!This is an open question for the time being , one that   did not answer yet.

As an indication, in Birsdeye factories the frozen food in the early years of the 20th century were preserved by the so-called cold-pack method. Food handlers would wash and sort fruits or vegetables, then pack them in large containers holding from 30-400 lb (14-180 kg). The large containers were placed in a cold storage room for several days until the mass was frozen solid. So if it took several days to cool say 180 kg ( that is 350 pounds) of food, how much more would it take to freeze a 6000 kf ( 13,000 pounds) mammoth! 33 tome bigger! is it 33 time longer ? I really don’t know , maybe a specialist of freezing technology could tell me…but It has to be longer…than a few days …(http://www.madehow.com/Volume-5/Frozen-Vegetable.html)http://mentalfloss.com/article/57100/time-250000-year-old-mammoth-was-served-dinner

Mammoth meat for dinner

I reflected that mammoth must have been living before their death, in an environment providing ample food…what do mammoths eat? Grasses, I guess , like elephants?. At the moment Siberia does not provide much food and has not large animals, except reindeers and bears…..? That was a mystery I had to solve…In fact my research indicate that they ate much more than grass, flowering plants, like poppies, and dandelions, are more nutritious than grasses and have been found in their stomach.(see below). Some mammoths had intact buttercup flowers in their GI track…now why did they eat buttercup? a poisonous plant? were they so starving that they had to resort to this? after having eaten everything else? Maybe that is what ultimatly killed them, or some of them..

Here is what the Veterinary Medicine Library says:

Buttercups generally inhabit moist areas. Animals allowed to graze in woods, in wet meadows, and by ditches and streams browse the buttercups with other succulent plants. All animals are susceptible to buttercup poisoning, but cows are most often poisoned (http://www.library.illinois.edu/vex/toxic/butcup/butcup.htm).

WHAT IS ATLANTIS:
Atlantis is the name of a great civilization that disappeared 11,500 years ago – in a sudden cataclysm according to Plato. Although we have many legends and stories from all around the world regarding a flood and a past civilization, no story is as compelling, complete and inspiring than the one Plato wrote…
Plato does not tell us exactly where Atlantis was, but he tells us that is was located “Beyond the Straights of Heracles”.

Kircher-atlantis-map-and- text

Figure 3-Atlantis as drawn by Kircher the South in on the top…as the custom was in his time. Next to it the same drawing reversed – the outlines of Europe, Africa and North and South America more clearly seen.
Kircher-map-flipped

This is the same inverted.

I theorise that the name Atlantis, is composed of  two parts: Atl which according to some, means water in the Aztec language and Antis or Andes, meaning mountains in the same language, according to the same source. Atlantis is the only word in any European languages containing this root Atl – it gives its name of the Atlantic ocean and all related words, and the God Atlas in Greek mythology, but “ante” or “ande” in found in several names of people and geographical features around the world. Other words include “Andalousia” a word which has no known origin, the Atlantic coast of Spain and France were the first to be colonised by Atlantes after the fall of Atlantis…
The 4th century AD historian Ammianus Marcellinus, relying on a lost work by Timagenes, a historian writing in the 1st century BC, writes that the Druids of Gaul said that part of the inhabitants of Gaul had migrated there from distant islands. Ammianus says that the Druids recall that a part of the population is indigenous but others also migrated in from islands and lands beyond the Rhine” (Res Gestae 15.9), an indication that the immigrants came to Gaul from the north and east, not from the Atlantic Ocean .
LANGUAGE OF THE AZTECS
The present language of the Aztecs is called the Nahuatl. It  comprises words with this unusual combination of letters tl – No European languages has this, except to form adverbs such as mostly or costly…ex: Nahuatl, Tlaxcala, Tenochtitlan, atlatl, axolotl. The Aztec are the closest relative of the Atlantes people according to this Theory Atlantis in Antarctica…
From the word Andes are derived many names on both side of the Atlantic Ocean such as : the Andes mountains ranges in south America, Andalusia whose name does not have a known origin and the Gaulish tribe of the Andes  in Western France…who may have given their name to the town of Nantes, and the province of Anjou, in the river Loire estuary…Indeed the present inhabitants of the area are shorter and darker in hair colour than the surrounding people… The tribe occupied a territory in Anjou, in the modern Maine-et-Loire département.
andes - tribes
The Romans termed the Andes  territory Andegavia, the land of the Andecavi, and the name survives today as Anjou. They had a capital at Angers which was Latinised as Juliomagus Andecavorum, and their name survived in the medieval ‘angevin’, which formed the basis of the Anglo-Norman Angevin empire, and in modern Anjou .

 

BLOOD TYPES:
After the destruction of their continents, the surviving inhabitants of Atlantis, as well as those who were already there as colons, Plato speaks of the Atlantes as a conqueror race…This breed hada tanned, sallow complexion, straight black hair, brown eyes, proheminent nose and slim build… and medium stature. They were probably in the main of the O blood group…like most of the South American Indian of today

Edouard Schuré   write in his book “ The great ininiates”BLOOD TYPE O WORLD speaks of the four ancient races of men, one of them the red one, now disrearded totally –
Atlanteans were of the red race.

This is one of the reasons of the confusion which is now occuring when paleoindian remains are found. Many exhibit “caucasian “ features, when they should belong to the “Siberian”race, according to the theory of the Bearingia passage, which is assumed to have been the way America was populate: by people coming from Asia…

And yes, there were people related to the modern population of Siberia, which belong to the mongoloid breed. However theory did not come from the so called ice-age Bearingian passage, they descended from the North pole, before their place was glaciated. The other people, the one presenting “ caucasian features come from there too. Others people came from the south, from what is now Antarctica or Atlantis….
If we compared the two groups of American Indians they are in fact quite different: in the south they have very long skulls and aquiline noses, when in the north many have broad skulls and small noses. For the modern USA of European descent,  “they all look the same” but in fact they don’t, only the colours are similar : sallow skin and black straight hair..but their bones structure are different.
We see on the map of blood type distribution, that there is virtually no blood type O people in Siberia, whereas, the majority of the South American Indians are of blood type O…as well as many of the North American Indians…Europe and the rest of the world is a mix  of different blood types….Is it possible that, this blood type came from Atlantis?…

WHAT DO THE ATLANTS LOOKED LIKE:
After the fall of Atlantis, the survivors dipearsed throughout the world, reaching Europe eventually, and mixing with the locals. We now call them Europeans. In India they became the Dravidians, and in Egypt the Egyptians, they were already in south America, creating the diverse Indian tribes and slowly moving north…

Figure 4 Modern Inca woman
inca woman
Their faces were graceful and many of  both men and women, beautiful…they were on the whole very intelligent and ingenious, technically minded, precise and punctual…However they had some flaws, they were greedy and over ambitious, lacked generosity and compassion, they spirituality was rather materialistic…based on power and control more than than true enlightenment….
They came from the south of the planet. According to Hapgood, The axis of the Earth was different then and they lived at a latitude which is now frozen but was temperate at the time….

The cataclysm affected more than them, it affected also other people who lived in the North of the Planet, their land has also disappeared under water at the same time.
In the north of the planet other people were also affected by the cataclysm, their land flooded and destroyed, the climate changed forever, the whole North of Europe covered by snow and ice suddenly, causing he near extincting of the mammoth, and other animals.
They are the Athenian Plato is talking about in the Atlantis story…They were similar to what the Greeks call the Hyperboreans,  tall,blond ancestors of the present Scandinavians people…(described as transparent in the myth) the Athenians in Plato’s stories were not strickly speaking Athenians as we think of now, but a breed of  Europeans, known to the Egyptians of the time…
NATIVE AMERICAN NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO EAST ASIANS
Nearly one-third of Native American genes come from west Eurasian people linked to the Middle East and Europe, rather than entirely from East Asians as previously thought, according to a newly sequenced genome .
Based on the arm bone of a 24,000-year-old Siberian youth, the research could uncover new origins for America’s indigenous peoples, as well as stir up fresh debate on Native American identities, experts say. The study authors believe the new study could also help resolve some long-standing puzzles on the peopling of the New World, which include genetic oddities and archaeological inconsistencies. Explore an atlas of the human journey.”These results were a great surprise to us,” said study co-author and ancient-DNA specialist Eske Willerslev, of the University of Copenhagen, Denmark.”I hadn’t expected anything like this. A genome related to present-day western Eurasian populations and modern Native Americans as well was really puzzling in the beginning. How could this happen?”
It is obvious, that both population USA Indians and Europeans have a lot in common, part of their genome coming from Hyperborean  whites and part form the continent of Atlantis reds… a small part come from the Siberian circle  now called Eskimo or Ahinut  but it is not great…Some readers of national geographic were chocked at those results, as they have been used to be told of the Beringia Theory but  DNA does not lie.
The DNA gleaned from two ancient Siberian skeletons is related to that of modern-day Native Americans and western Eurasians, new research suggests.

In 2009, Willerslev’s a palaeogeneticist at the University of Copenhagen team travelled to Hermitage State Museum in St. Petersburg, where it had arranged to collect a DNA sample from one of the Mal’ta boy’s arm bones. “We hoped that he could tell us something about the early peopling of the Americas, but it was a complete long shot,” he says.
The team found that DNA from the boy’s mitochondria belonged to a lineage called haplogroup U, which is found in Europe and west Asia but not in east Asia, where his body was unearthed. The result was so bizarre that Willerslev assumed that his sample had been contaminated with other genetic material, and put the project on hold for a year. But the boy’s nuclear DNA — the bulk of his genome — told the same story. “Genetically, this individual had no east Asian  resemblance but looked like Europeans and people from west Asia,” says Willerslev.
“But the thing that was really mind-blowing was that there were signatures you only see in today’s Native Americans.” This signal is consistent among peoples from across the Americas, implying that it could not have come from European settlers who arrived after Christopher Columbus.

Instead, it must reflect an ancient ancestry.
The Mal’ta boy’s genome showed that Native Americans can trace 14% to 38% of their ancestry back to Western Eurasia, the authors conclude.
DNA extracted from the bones of the prehistoric boy, who died while only a toddler, proved that he shared genetic traits with Western Europeans and native Americans – but none with East Asians. The discovery has surprised and perplexed the lead scientist conducting the research. “At first I thought it was contamination, to be honest. It was just so unexpected,” Eske Willerslev, director of the Center for GeoGenetics at the University of Copenhagen says (LOS ANGELES, CA Catholic Online )
The boy was from all over Europe: the two examined genomes show that modern Europeans had traveled much father into Eurasia than we had previously assumed(http://www.dailystormer.com/24000-year-old-remains-of-siberian-boy-link-europeans-and-american-indians/).

Balor eye-death ray

Balor death-ray eye

ATLANTEANS IN IRELAND?
In Irish myths and legends, there are people which may be of Atlantean origin, but not all of them. Many called them gods, but in my opinion they were just people.  Those are the Fomores or Fomorians. Their leader Balor had a weapon which could throw mortal rays – It is said that he had one eye in the middle of the forehad and this eye was a mortal weapon – acording to the legend,  it was very heavy and it took four men to lift the eye lid of this eyes (obviously some kind of machine) .
He maried of woman however, of the race of  the Tuatha de Dananna, and had a son, Bres, who became head of the tribe or the Tuatha de Danann He was chosen for being the most handsome of the men. He lost his job however for being cruel and mean and forgotting to pay his musicians ….The Atlants Fomorians had a great technology and were arrogants. The Tuahatha de Dannan came from the North an are probabley a remant of the Hyporboreans tribes who once lived around what is now the North Pole, before it became frozen of course… the Irish  stories state the Tuatha De Danann came from the North in a mist..After much battles, the two races intermingled and they descendants are the modern Irish.(http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Article/1198646)

Bress

Bress, ( detail ) by Jim FitzPatrick, Ireland

EXTINCTION OF THE MAMMOTH:
The cataclysm affected the large animals of Northern Europe, Siberia and Northern America…such as the mammoths, killing most of them and rendering they grazing grounds inhabitable and frozen…overnight. It finished off the Neanderthals, who had survived several “ice ages” before, without becoming extinct…it seems that they had survived in southern Spain up to this time 10,000 BC or so. It is now accepted that some Neanderthal genes were passed on to the modern homo sapien genome, by interbreeding.
Figure 6 -Woolly mammoths wandered the planet for about 250,000 years and vanished from Siberia by about 10,000 years ago- Credit: Mauricio Anton

mammoth and hunter

Mammoth attacked by a man

SIBERIA WAS NOT FROZEN DURING THE ICE AGE:
The soil of Siberia, Canada and Alaska has preserved the DNA of prehistoric plants, fungi and animals. At the International Barcode of Life Conference 2011 in Adelaide, South Australia, Eva Bellemain of the University of Oslo in Norway revealed the first fruits of analysis of Siberian permafrost DNA.
The samples were extracted from 15,000 to 25,000-year-old frozen sediment in southern Chukotka in North-Eastern Siberia: around 20,000 years ago temperatures plummeted and ice sheets blanketed much of the northern hemisphere – but parts of Siberia, Canada and Alaska apparently stayed ice-free .
Fossils and pollen found in these regions suggest they may have acted as a refuge for plants and animals during this time, but Eva Bellemain turned to fungal DNA… Bellemain identified around 40 fungal taxa mushrooms that thrived during the last ice age, in northern Siberia… Core samples contained DNA from woolly rhinoceros, woolly mammoths reindeer and moose proving parts of Siberia, Canada and Alaska apparently stayed ice-free (Quaternary Science Reviews, DOI: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2011.07.020).

Meanwhile, Haile and Tina Jørgensen at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark have used ancient DNA of  pollen and fossil evidence to reconstruct the plant life surrounding Lake Taymyr, on a peninsula in northern Siberia. Using cores from  sites around the lake, the team identified 66 plant taxa that stuck around from 46,000 to 12,000 years ago, even though temperatures in the region fluctuated by some 20 °C during this period. “I was surprised that the environment remained stable for so long,” says Jørgensen (Molecular Ecology, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-294x.2011.05287.x).

lake Tamyr - Siberia

Lake Tamyr – Siberia

 

Figure 7- Lake Taymir Siberia

yana rhino

Yana Rhino

THE ICE AGES.
The current paradigm assumes that periodicaly, ice sheets form in temperate areas. A recent discovery in Siberia should throw this paradigm into a whole new rethink.
Because nine members of the Russian Academy of Science published an article in the world most prestigious journal, Science, demonstrating people where living at 71N that is a full five degrees or 300 miles within the Arctic Circle around 30,000 years ago.
The Yana Rhinoceros Horn Site proves that this site was warmer during the last “ice age” than it is today.
Animals that the people hunted include: mammoths, rhinoceros, Pleistocene bison, horse, reindeer, musk-ox, wolf, polar fox, Pleistocene lion, brown bear, and wolverine. The authors of the report noted that:“…only the reindeer and wolf still inhabit this area”.
It seems obvious that Siberia was not within the Arctic Circle 30,000 years ago when the people of Yana hunted bison, reindeer and horses. Siberia wasn’t in the polar zone then but  when New York was.
QUICK FREEZE:
For carcasses to be frozen and the bones and tusks well preserved, quick burial is necessary…The diversity of animals was so great that there must have been a highly diverse vegetation.
Practically all the large mammals were grazers that ate a wide variety of herbaceous vegetation, mainly grasses. Based on the large numbers of healthy individuals, Beringia, as well as Europe and western Russia, must have been mostly one huge grassland during the ice age. The sheep and wolf could not have tolerated deep snow or boggy substrate.
To maintain a large variety of herbaceous vegetation on the mammoth steppe would have required a long growing season with warm soil and rapid spring growth.
This contrasts strongly to the current environment where green vegetation does not appear in northern Siberia until mid June to early July.90 %  of the biomass of grass is in the roots below the surface, and the grass cannot grow until the snow melts and the soil warms up. Therefore, winters must have been milder with light snowfall. The growth pattern of the mammals reinforces the deduction of a longer growing season. The shaggy ruffs, heavy horns, long tusks, and enormous antlers are what wildlife managers would recognise as indicators of high-quality habitat with light competition and a long growing  season. Open range with light snowfall during winter is also supported by the existence of several animals that are intolerant of deep snow, such as the saiga antelope, bighorn sheep, Dall sheep, and wolf…
With milder winters and a longer growing season over an extensive grassland, it is likely that there were no significant areas of permafrost. This is because permafrost would have caused a boggy substrate in summer, making it difficult for much grass to grow.
Further paleoecological evidence for a lack of permafrost comes from the existence of some animals with small hooves, such as the saiga antelope. This animal cannot manage on boggy substrate. Furthermore, there is plenty of other evidence that the climate of Siberia was once much warmer….
THE MYSTERY OF THE HORSE EXTINCTION:
Since the most recent truly wild horse fossil dates to about 12,500 years ago, scientists had thought these animals died out before humans were a factor. In the new study, researchers reevaluated some of the unreliable data used in previous calculations and determined that when gaps in the fossil record and radiocarbon dating errors are factored in, it is possible that humans and horses coexisted.
Radiocarbon dating techniques—the most common method of determining the age of organic material—can be off by 200 to 300 years, a significant error when considering a thousand-year window.
As a result, it is impossible to rule out human hunting as the cause, or major contributing factor, to horse extinction in North America .
The end of the Pleistocene epoch, 12,000 years ago, coincided with a global cooling event and the extinction of many large mammals. North America was hardest hit. This extinction event saw the demise of the horse in North America. It survived only because the Bering land bridge that once connected Alaska and Siberia had enabled some animals to cross into Asia and spread west.
The end of the Pleistocene also saw the end of the woolly mammoth, American camels, dire wolves, short-faced bears, saber-toothed cats, stag-moose, woolly rhinos and giant ground sloths….Why could the continent that gave rise to the horse no longer provide a suitable home? The Bering land bridge was a life-saving move for horses – and a life-changing one for humankind.
HORSE DOMESTICATION:
In 2009, researchers found evidence that pushed horse domestication back to the Botai Culture of Kazakhstan around 5500 years ago – some 1000 years earlier than thought and about 2000 years earlier than domesticated horses are known to have been in Europe. Evidence suggests horses were originally domesticated, not just for riding, but also to provide food, including milk.
Horse domestication revolutionized transportation, accelerated communication, and transformed warfare in prehistory.  Yet the identification of early domestication processes has been problematic.
In a paper published in the journal Science on March 6, 2009 archaeologist Alan K. Outram and seven co-authors published:
“three independent lines of evidence demonstrating domestication dating to about 3500 B.C.E. Metrical analysis of horse metacarpals shows that Botai horses resemble Bronze Age domestic horses rather than Paleolithic wild horses from the same region.
Pathological characteristics indicate that some Botai horses were bridled, perhaps ridden. Organic residue analysis, using δ13C and δD values of fatty acids, reveals processing of mare’s milk and carcass products in ceramics, indicating a developed domestic economy encompassing secondary products”
Before horses were domesticated it appears that prehistoric people mainly killed horses for food.  One of the most celebrated collections of horse and reindeer bones was found beneath the precipice at the paleolithic site of Solutré
Though prehistoric people primarily hunted the reindeer for food and other necessities of life, an explanation for the immense deposit of bones at Solutré is that prehistoric people stampeded reindeer and horses over the cliff as a means of killing them.

EUROPE AFTER THE FLOOD:
Europe was practically empty of people for a while, flooded, it became waterlogged and swampy everywhere. As Plato says, only those living in the mountains survived. However eventually the people moved in both from the North and the South, and created the Europeans as we know them now….
Plato, re-telling what the Egyptian priestes told his ancestor, say that there was many such catatrophies in the past:
When…the gods purge the earth with a deluge of water, the survivors in your country Europe are the herdsmen and shepherds dwelling  on the mountains, but those who… live in cities are carried by the rivers into the sea.
Whereas in this land Egypt …the water….come up from below; for which reason the traditions preserved here are the most ancient. Wherever the extremity of winter frost or of summer does not prevent, mankind exist, sometimes in greater, sometimes in lesser numbers.  And whatever happen either in your country europe or in ourEgypt … if there were any actions noble or great …they have all been written down by us… and are preserved in our temples.
Whereas just when you Europeans and other nations are beginning to be provided with letters and the other requisites of civilized life, after the usual interval , the stream from heaven, like a pestilence, comes pouring down, and leaves only those of you who are destitute of letters and education; and so you have to begin all over again like children, and know nothing of what happened  in ancient times, either among us or among yourselves.

Figure 9- Vostoc temperature finding in Antarctica
You  your people’ tradition  remember a single deluge only, but there were many previous ones; …you do not know that there formerly dwelt in your landEurope the fairest and noblest race which ever lived, and that you and …are descended from a small ….remnant of the survivors… The survivors of that destruction died, leaving no written word.
For there was a time….before the great deluge…. when… Athens Europe was …the best governed of all cities….performed the noblest deeds and…had the fairest constitution of any…..

OTHER EXAMPLES OF ATLANTIS  ANTARCTICA THEORIES:
Rose and Rand Flem-Ath have proposed this theoy in their book, When the Sky Fell; the theory was revised …in Rand’s work with author Colin Wilson, in The Atlantis Blueprint published in 2002. The second work theorized that Atlantis was to be found in Lesser Antarctica, near the coast of the Ross Ice Shelf.
A geological theory known as “Earth Crust Displacement” forms the basis of their work…
HAPGOOD’S THEORY:
Charles Hapgood is probably the one who came up first apparently with the “Earth Crustal Displacement theory”. Charles Hutchins Hapgood May 17, 1904 – December 21, 1982 was an American college professor and author. He suggested that Earth’s outer crust is able to move upon the upper mantle layer rapidly up to a distance of 2,000 miles, placing Atlantis in Antarctica, when considering the movements of the crust in the past.
Albert Einstein was in favour of this idea and wrote a preface for Hapgood’s book Earth’s shifting crust, published in 1958. …
The Earth’s Shifting Crust was his first published work: a Key to Some Basic Problems of Earth Sciences, revised and reissued in 1970 as The Path of the Pole. In these books he explored his theories about the movements of the outer layer of the earth and the resulting polar shifts, which he believed to have influenced the formation of various mountain ranges and the changing size and level of the oceans and seas.
Hapgood’s book, Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings: Evidence of Advanced Civilization in the Ice Age 1966, revised edition 1979, suggested that Antarctica had been a habitable continent prior to the shift of the earth’s outer layer. His research was based in large part on a portolan chart  drawn in 1513 by Piri Reis, a Turkish admiral and cartographer, which had been discovered in 1929 in an Istanbul library. Hapgood had earlier given a presentation on the map at the Tenth International Congress of the History of Science Ithaca, New York, 1962.
THE EARTH’S SHIFTING CRUST THEORY
In 1958 Charles Hapgood suggested that the Earth’s crust had undergone repeated displacements and that the geological concepts of continental drift and sea-floor spreading owed their secondary livelihoods to the path of the pole primary nature of crustal shift.
According to Hapgood, crustal shift was made possible by a layer of liquid rock situated about 100 miles beneath the surface of the planet  this is actually true, but modern scientists prefer the theory of plate tectonics . A pole shift would thus displace the Earth’s crust in around the inner mantle, resulting in crustal rock’s being exposed to magnetic fields of a different direction.
While at Springfield College, a student’s question about the Lost Continent of Mu prompted a class project to investigate the lost continent of Atlantis, leading Hapgood to investigate possible ways that massive earth changes could occur and exposing him to the literature of Hugh Auchincloss Brown.
In Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings 1966  and The Path of the Pole 1970, Hapgood proposed the hypothesis that the Earth’s axis has shifted numerous times during geological history this is in fact true also .
In Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings he supported the suggestion made by Arlington Mallery that a part of the Piri Reis Map was a depiction of the area of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. He used this to propose that a 15 degree pole shift occurred around 9,600 BCE approx. 11,600 years ago and that a part of the Antarctic was ice-free at that time, and that an ice-age civilization could have mapped the coast.
He concludes that Antarctica was mapped when these parts were free of ice, taking that view that an Antarctic warm period coincided with the last ice age in the Northern hemisphere, and that the Piri Reis and other maps were based on “ancient” maps derived from ice-age originals.  Later research concerning the paleoclimatology and ice sheets of Antarctica have completely discredited the interpretations by  Hapgood that an Antarctic warm period coincided with the last glacial period in the Northern hemisphere and any part of it had been ice-free at and prior to 9,600 BCE approx. 11,600 years ago.
Hapgood also examined a 1531 map by French mathematician and cartographer Oronce Finé aka Oronteus Finaeus. In Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings, he reproduces letters that he states he received from the chief of a U.S. Air
Force cartography section stationed at Westover AFB in 1961. These letters say that at Hapgood’s request, they had studied both
Piri Reis and Oronce Finé maps during their off-duty hours, concluding that both were compiled from original source maps of
Antarctica at a time when it was relatively free of ice, supporting Hapgood’s findings. Hapgood concluded that advanced cartographic
knowledge appears on the Piri Reis map and the Oronteus Finaeus map, and must be the result of some unknown ancient civilization
that developed advanced scientific knowledge before other civilizations such as Greece.

GRAHAM HANCOCK:
In his book “Fingerprints of the Gods”, author Graham Hancock also argues for the Earth Crustal Displacement theory in general, and the Atlantis/Antarctica connection specifically, and propose archaeological explorations of Antarctica in search of Atlantis .
However, for the time being science disrpove this theory and consider that the Antarctic ice sheet has existed for about 35-40 million years, since the mid-Tertiary :
The onset of glaciations in Antarctica in the mid-Tertiary was probably related to the breakup of Gondwana, pole ward drift of Antarctica and the development of ocean passages around the continent Kennett, 1977.
However: …Macro and microfossil evidence from Late Cretaceous and Paleocene deposits on James Ross Island and Vega Island suggest that climate there was warm to cool temperate and humid Askin, 1992.
ODP results from the Queen Maud Land margin suggest temperate to subtropical Late Cretaceous climate Kennett & Barker, 1990, and ODP data from northern Weddell Sea suggests bottom and surface waters there were relatively warm throughout most of Paleocene Kennett & Stott, 1990; Robert & Kennett, 1994.
PENGUINS ARE RELATIVELY RECENT IN ANTARCTICA:
On King George Island, glaciers were within their present limits by c. 6 ka BP 6000 year ago , on northern James Ross Island before 4.7 ka BP , but parts of Byers Peninsula on Livingston Island were ice-free as late as 5-3 ka BP .  The minimum date for deglaciation on Elephant Island is provided by the start of moss-bank formation on the steep slopes at Walker Point by 5.5 ka BP  …
Figure 11: penguin rookery in Hope Bay
The large penguin rookery in Hope Bay. Penguins have occupied this site since c. 5.5 ka BP 5550 years ago. The earliest Holocene  penguin occupation in the Antarctic Peninsula-South Shetland Islands region has been dated to c. 6.5 ka BP in Marguerite Bay. Photograph: Ólafur Ingólfsson, 1987

Figure 12-Hope bay – map-http://www.halling.org.uk/Travel/Antarctica2008.shtml

LATE QUATERNARY GLACIAL DEVELOPMENT IN ANTARCTICA
The late Quaternary…fluctuations of the …ice sheet in West Antarctica have been debated during the past decades….The oceanic…record suggests that between 150-120 ka BP there was less…ice volume than at present, and it has been suggested that… global sea level were  5-6 m higher than present during Marine Isotope Substage 5e  Mercer, 1978.
One of the accepted theories, describe how the Milankovitch cycles explain the many glaciations and their apparent regularities…
DESCRIPTION OF ATLANTIS IN PLATO
Atlantis was a very large island, the size of a continent, which make most of the theories about the location of Atlantis invalid.
“Atlantis….was an island greater in extent than Libya and Asia” .
Libya was the name given to the part Africa the Greeks knew then mostly the Maghreb, and Asia was what we call the middle East now.
Together they make a very large territory.
Therefore those  who propose Crete for instance as a possible location for Atlantis are mistaken, Crete 8,336 km² or 3,219 sq. mi. is much too small. What is more, Cretee is in the Mediterraneansea, not beyond the Pillar of Hercules Gibraltar. However it is possible and ever probable that the people of Crete, that we call Minoans now, were amons the many descendants of rthe Atlanteans. They did have in commun with the Atlanteans, great skill of navigation, a taste fo luxury and the cult of bulls…amond other characteristic, which are not unique to Atlantis but are part of their culture…
PLATO WAS AWARE OF AMERICA:
In the Timaeus, one of two texts in which Plato describe Atlantis we read:
In those days the Atlantic was navigable , and there was an island situated beyond the Pillars of Heracles strait of Gibraltar.This island was larger than Libya and Asia put together. It was the passage to other islands, and from these; you might pass to the whole of the opposite continent, which surrounded the Atlantic Ocean. The Mediterranean Sea is only a harbor, having a narrow entrance, but the Atlantic Ocean is a real sea, and the surrounding land America? is a boundless continent.
DESCRIPTION BY OTHER AUTHORS:
A passage from Proclus ‘ left commentary on the Timaeus gives a description of the geography of Atlantis Crystalinks:
“That an island of such nature and size once existed is evident from what is said by certain authors who investigated the things around the outer sea. According to them, there were seven islands in that sea in their time, sacred to Persephone, and also three others of enormous size, one of which was sacred to Pluto, another to Ammon, and another one between them to Poseidon, the extent of which was a thousand stadia ; and the inhabitants of it add preserved the memory from their ancestors of the immensely large island of Atlantis which had really existed there and which for many ages had reigned over all islands in the Atlantic sea and which itself was sacred to Pos eidon… ”
The historian Ammianus Marcellinus wrote that the Alexandrian Egyptians considered the destruction of Atlantis a historical fact, and described a class of earthquakes that suddenly, by a violent motion, opened up huge mouths and so swallowed up portions of the earth, as once in the Atlantic Ocean a large island was swallowed up.
Diodorus Siculus recorded that the Atlanteans did not know the fruits of Ceres. In fact, Old World cereals were unknown to American Indians. Rand and Rose Flem-Ath have an interesting chapter [062.12] on the subject of agriculture and its development in the context of their own theories. In 2013, Rand Flem-Ath republished his paper on the origins of agriculture that first appeared in The Anthropological Journal of Canada in 1981.
Pausanias called this island “Satyrides,” referring to the Atlantes and those who profess to know the measurements of the earth.
THE MYSTERY OF THE ORIGIN OF MAIZE
UICHOL LEGEND ABOUT MAIZE.
There is a huichol myth which talks about the anthropogenic selection performed by this indigenous nation with maize……The Mother of Maize changed her dove appearance to a human one; She introduced to the young man her 5 daughters, who symbolize the five maize sacred colors: white, red, yellow, spotted and blue. As the young man was hungry The Mother of Maize gave  him a kettle filled with tortillas and a pot filled with atole; he didn’t belive that those could satiate his hunger, but the tortillas and atole were renewed magicaly, in a way that he couldn’t finish them. The Mother of Maize asked him to choose one of her daughters and he took the Girl of Blue Maize, the most beauty and sacred of them all…
Maise or As the USA calls it “Corn” , is the only cereal cultivated in pre-columbian america, either in North or South America. Indian also grew beans, and squashes. Archaeologists for a long time have sought the origins of this plant—which has no wild forms existing today—in order to throw light on the agricultural basis of Meso-American civilization.
Although corn is indigenous to the western hemisphere, its exact birthplace is far less certain. Archeological evidence of corn’s early presence in the western hemisphere was identified from corn pollen grain considered to be 80,000 years old obtained from drill cores 200 feet below Mexico City.
Another archeological study of the bat caves in New Mexico revealed corncobs that were 5,600 years old by radiocarbon determination. Most historians believe corn was domesticated in the Tehuacan Valley of Mexico. The original wild form has long been extinct.
Evidence suggests that cultivated corn arose through natural crossings, perhaps first with gamagrass to yield teosinte and then possibly with back­crossing of teosinte to primitive maize to produce modern races. There are numerous theories as to the ancestors of modern corn and many scientific articles and books have been written on the subject. Corn is perhaps the most completely domesticated of all field crops. Its perpetuation for centuries has depended wholly on the care of man. It could not exist as a wild plant in its present form .
Paxil is the name of the place where maize originated according to the Popol Vuh, the sacred book of the K’ich’s, where according to one of the versions of the origins of maize from the Mam oral tradition of the municipalities of xtahuacán and Colotenango, the grain was brought from there by animals, and that is where the “Mother of Maize” resides.
OLDEST MAIZE AND SQUASH:
Guilá Naquitz lies in the mountainous eastern Valley of Oaxaca, 1926 m above sea level in a semiarid thorn scrub forest.. When excavated in 1966, the cave was found to have seven “living floors” or human occupations… Zone A, the uppermost level, was dated to A.D. 620–740 and contained a diverse domesticated plants. Zones B1, B2, B3, C, D, and E were dated to the much earlier Naquitz phase ca. 10,650–6,980 14C years B.P…..A seed of domesticated squash recovered from zone B1 was directly dated to 8,990 B.P about 9,975 calendar years ago… changes in fruit shape and color of the squash remains indicated deliberate human selection for fruit characteristics.
The two oldest maize cobs in the New World were found in the  Guilá Naquitz Cave. In 1999, we sampled these specimens. Dates of 5,420  and 5,410 years B.P. about 6,250 calendar years ago were obtained on the cobs….
ANALYSING THE CRITIAS AND TIMEAUS TEXTS:
1)    EUROPE WAS AT WAR WITH ATLANTIS:
These stories tell of a mighty power Atlantis which, unprovoked made an expedition against the whole of Europe and Asia, and to which your city Europe  put  an end. This power came out of the Atlantic Ocean.
2)    ATLANTIS WAS A COLONISING POWER:
” In this island of Atlantis there was a great empire which ruled over the whole island and several others, and over parts of the continent of America.
Atlantis had subjected parts of North Africa within the columns of Heracles as far as Egypt, and of Europe as far as Tyrrhenia .
This vast power, gathered into one , endeavored to subdue our country  and yours and the whole of the region within the straits.
Your country Europe shone forth, in the excellence of her virtue and strength, among all mankind. She was pre-eminent in courage and military skill, and was the leader of the Hellenes.
And when the rest abandonned her, being compelled to stand alone, after having undergone the very extremity of danger, she defeated and triumphed over the invaders, and preserved from slavery those who were not yet subjugated, and generously liberated all the rest of us who dwell within the pillars .
PLATO DESCRIPTION OF ATLANTIS CRITIAS  :
“Looking towards the sea, but in the centre of the whole island, there was a plain said to have been the fairest of all plains and very fertile. Near the plain in the centre of the island at a distance of about 50 stadia  10 km there was a mountain not very high on any side.
Poseidon…In the centre island, brings up two springs of water from beneath the earth, one of warm water and the other of cold, and makes every variety of food to spring up abundantly from the soil”.

Figure 13-Atlantis vision -http://unmuseum.mus.pa.us/atlantis.htm
And further down:
“…They had fountains, of cold and hot water…flowing; they were wonderfully adapted for use because of the excellence of their waters”.
“They the Atlanteans constructed buildings around them and planted suitable trees, also they made cisterns, some open to the heavens, others roofed over, to be used in winter as warm baths; there were the kings’ baths.”
Scientists have just now discovered an active volcano under the Antarctic ice that “creates melt-water that lubricates the base of the ice sheet and increases the flow towards the sea”. This is probably the source of the hot springs.
Just like Iceland now, Atlantis was a very volcanic Island and the inhabitants took advantage of this situation. In fact, there are a lot of volcanoes in Antarctica….

Atlantis was a large country and had colonies all over the world:
“All… their descendants for many generations were the inhabitants and rulers of diverse islands in the open sea….they held sway in our direction over the country within the Pillars Mediterranean Sea as far as Egypt and Tyrrhenia Italy.”
And further:
“The docks were full of triremes sailing boats and naval stores, and all things were quite ready for use. …The entire area was densely crowded with habitations and the canal and the largest of the harbours were full of vessels and merchants coming from all parts, who, from their numbers, kept up a multitudinous sound of human voices, and din and clatter of all sorts, night and day”.
Atlantis was a very rich country too and they already practised the primogeniture or right of the eldest son to inherit from his father over the other children:
“They retained the kingdom, the eldest son handing it on to his eldest for many generations. they had such an amount of wealth as was never before possessed by kings and potentates, and is not likely ever to be again, and they were furnished with everything which they needed, both in the city and country”.
Atlantis traded with a lot of different countries :
“many things were brought to them from foreign countries, and the island itself provided most of what was required by them for the uses of life”.
Atlantis had a lot of mineral riches:
“They dug out of the earth…solid as well as fusible, and…orichalcum, was dug out of the earth in many parts of the island, being more precious in those days than anything except gold”.
Atlantis was covered with forests and had many wild animals:
“There was an abundance of forests ….and sufficient maintenance for tame and wild animals….there were a great number of elephants in the island… all other sorts of animals, …which live in lakes and marshes and rivers, in mountains and on plains, so there was for the animal which is the largest and most voracious of all”.
Atlantis was a mountainous and very populated country:
The whole country was said by him to be very high and precipitous on the side of the sea, but the country immediately about and surrounding the city was a level plain, itself surrounded by mountains which descended towards the sea;
“The surrounding mountains were celebrated for their number and size and beauty, far beyond any which still exist, having in them also many wealthy villages of country folk, and rivers, and lakes, and meadows supplying food enough for every animal, wild or tame, and much wood of various sorts.”

Possibly the cataclysm flipped Atlantis several degree and the mountains which were previously in the North are now in the West…
“This part of the island looked towards the south, and was sheltered from the north”.

ATLANTIS WA S VERY LARGE COUNTRY
Plato the timaeus  states:
This island was larger than Libya and Asia put together….
To compare, Antartica covers a huge area, about 14 million square kilometers 5.4 million square miles, More than the United States 9,8 million km2 or 3,8 million sq mi . Europe Area is just under  10 million km2 ot 4 million sq miles. Antarctica is larger than another island continent in the southern hemisphere, Australia Area 7,6 million km2 or 2,9 million sq mi.
It is quite mountainous. Antarctica has an average elevation of 2,300 meters 7,500 feet making it the highest continent on Earth. In comparison, the average elevation of the state of Colorado the highest in the USA is only 6,800 ft 2.200 Meters.
Antarctica is divided into unequal eastern and western portions by the Transantarctic Mountain chain….East Antarctica is a platform about 488 meters 1,600 feet above sea level… The land in West Antarctica is lower than in the east, and in some places is even well below sea level. The continent’s highest peak, Vinson Massif, is found in West Antarctica. It is located on the coast and is 4,876 meters 16,000 feet tall.
Under the surface of Antarctica…there is an active volcano: Mount Erebus, which is 3,794 meters 12,447 feet in height, is located in East Antarctica, on the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf….Antarctica is also home to Lake Vostok, one of the world’s largest lakes. Lake Vostok is roughly the size of North America’s Lake Ontario. It lies 4 kilometers 2 miles below the continental ice sheet .

Figure 14-Mt-Erebus eruption-http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/antarctica.html
Mt Erebus on the Ross Sea is the most active volcano in Antarctica.
Hyperborea , the Arch-rival of Atlantis…. was at the present north pole, spread over thousands of small islands, plus Greenland 2,166,086 km² or 836,109 sq miles  , Iceland and the Eastern Fringe of Siberia.
Its total surface was much smaller than that of Atlantis, but its population was great.
Hyperborea a.k.a Athens  was at war with Atlantis . It won the war, and liberated a lot of the colonies of Atlantis, who was said to be tyrannical and overbearing.
“This vast power, gathered into one, endeavored to subdue our country and yours and the whole of the region within the straits”
THE VARIOUS THEORIES OF ATLANTIS
1.    Alford Alan
2.    Ambrose Henry B.
3.    Beaumont Comyns
4.    Berlitz Charles
5.    The Bible
6.    Helene Blavatsky
7.    Brown Hugh Auchincloss
8.    Charles Hapgood
9.    Cosmic Vortex
10.    Díaz-Montexano Georgeos
11.    Ignatius L. Donnelly
12.    Temple K. G.
13.    Erich Von Däniken
14.    Holisys
15.    Joseph Frank
16.    Kircher Athanasius
17.    Lovecraft H. P.
18.    Nazi
19.    Nunes Arysio
20.    Robert Ishoy
21.    Ulf Erlingsson
22.    Edouard Schure

ALAN ALFORD
Born in 1961, Alan Alford was educated at King Edward VI Grammar School in Southampton, England and gained a degree in Commerce from the University of Birmingham in 1982.
In The Atlantis Secret 2003, Alford attacked Von Daniken theories arguing that the Greek gods were not deified heroes or astronauts but personifications of cataclysmic events from the beginning of the world.
In The Atlantis Secret, Alford criticises interpretations of Plato’s Atlantis story and asserts that Atlantis never existed in a geographical sense.
The story is a political allegory, he thinks, based on Plato’s critical view of Athens’ status as a powerful but decadent maritime empire in the 5th century BC.  and an allegory for the creation of the universe. In brief for Alford, Atlantis is a metaphor.
ROBERT ISHOY
Robert Ishoy like to compare Atlantis bull worship to diverse antique an present cultures:
•    The bull carvings in Sardinia, and the Minoan bull jumpers on Crete.
•    The Egyptians cult of Apis the Bull, support of his Egyptian Atlantis theory.
•    In Iranian mythology, Mithra kills a sacred bull.
•    Carvings of bulls’ heads decorated the home of ancient Anatolia in modern Turkey.
•    There are bull carvings to be seen at Tarxien in Malta. The ancient Celts also included bulls in their ceremonies.
•    The Assyrians had a bull-god as their guardian.
•    In India, there is a bull taming sport, jallikattu, which is practiced annually in the villages of Tamil Nadu.
Robert Ishoy advocates a Sardinian location for Atlantis. He suggests that obsidian, “commonly used on ancient Sardinia” was in fact the mysterious orichalcum referred to by Plato.
I disagree with Ishoy about Sardinia being Atlantis and with obsidian being orichalcum, but I do suppose that the Island was colonised by Atlants bothe befior and after the fall of Atlantis  Plato said that Atlantis had alreadiy colonised part fo the Mediterranean coastal countries up to Italy

ROBERT ISHOY : SARDINIA    CORRECT    INCORRECT
DIMENSIONS- HOW BIG        At 24,090 km2 9,300 square miles Sardinia  is much too smalll yo be Atlantis  I estimate 14.0 million km²

TIMING – WHEN        No cataclysm has been reported in Sardinia
LOCATION- WHERE        Sardinia is not located beyond the Pillars of Hercules, but within
WHAT         Obsidian is a stone not a metal therefore cannot be orichalque

TEMPLE  K . G .
Temple in his 2010 book, Egyptian Dawn  says that the “true ‘Atlantis’ was the Atlantic Coastal civilisation of the megalith builders.” He proposes that the story of Atlantis was concocted by megalith builders “for consumption by the people of the Mediterranean, as a kind of disinformation campaign.”

TEMPLE K. G. : ATLANTIC MEGALITHIC CIVILISATION    CORRECT    INCORRECT
DIMENSIONS- HOW BIG        ?
TIMING – WHEN        The megalithic civilsation 7000 bc. to 2000 b.c. florished long after after Atlantis Sank 11,500 b.c.
LOCATION- WHERE    The megalithic civilisation florished mostly beyond the Pillars of Hercules
WHAT         The megalithic civilsation 7000 bc. to 2000 b.c. florished long after after Atlantis Sank 11,500 b.c.

ULF ERLINGTON
Geographer Ulf Erlingsson , believes that the measurements, geography, and landscape of Atlantis as described by Plato match Ireland almost exactly.
Erlingsson believes the idea that Atlantis sank came from the fate of Dogger Bank, an isolated shoal in the North Sea, about 60 miles off the northeastern coast of England, which sank after being hit by a huge floodwave around 6,100 BC.
Erlingsson  links the boundaries of the Atlantic Empire, as outlined by Plato, with the geographic distribution of megalithic monuments in Europe and Northern Africa, matching Atlantis’ temples with well-known burial sites at Newgrange and Knowth, north of Dublin, which pre-date the pyramids .
ERLINGSSON: IRELAND    CORRECT    INCORRECT
DIMENSIONS- HOW BIG        At 88,000 km2Ireland is much too smalll yo be Atlantis  I estimate 14.0 million km²

TIMING – WHEN        The cataclism Erlingsson refers to , the flooding of the Dogger banks 6,100 BC happened long after Atlantis Sank 11,500 b.c.
LOCATION- WHERE    Ireland is located beyond the Pillars of Hercules    The dogger Banks is not in Ireland but England
WHAT         Ireland has monuments dating from before the pyramids megaliths but those are much more recents  35,000 BC – 4500 BC. than Atlantis 11,500 BC

THE SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCES
THE MYSTERY OF THE MAMMOTHS EXTINCTION
NEBRASKA did a comet kill the mammoths?
In 1962, paleontologists uncovered the rarest of Ice Age fossils in the Nebraska badlands: two complete male mammoths locked in a death grip by their 12-foot-long tusks  4 meters. What made them fight? And why did they die together? … 15,000 years ago, North America was like the Serengeti, but temperate with mega-creatures roaming the continent, and  teeming with incredible wildlife. But then, between 15 and 35 magnificent large types of animals went extinct….prominent scientists test a hypothesis that a comet broke apart in the atmosphere and devastated North America 12,900 years ago.

The mammoth fossils were from a species of prehistoric elephants that towered 13 feet high, 4.5 M weighed up to ten tons and had 12-foot tusks 4 meters. Mammoths and mastodons were plant eaters and normally passive, according to Voorhies . But these two animals had struggled to their deaths, their tusks locked and intertwined like a pair of twisted tree trunks with one tusk poking into the eye of the other. Voorhies said it appears the two male mammoths were so well matched for battle that neither one backed down.
EUROPE – RUSSIA
Mammoth discovery fuels hopes of cloning Ice Age animal. Well-preserved specimen with liquid blood found on Arctic island

Figure 16-Woolly mammoth emerging from an ice block. Photograph: ExhibitEase LLC/Steven W. Marcus/PA Wire.
Russian researchers say they have discovered a perfectly preserved woolly mammoth carcass with liquid blood on a remote Arctic island, fuelling hopes of cloning the Ice Age animal. They say the frozen remains of a female mammoth were so well-preserved that blood was found in ice cavities when they were broken up. Semyon Grigoryev, the head of the Mammoth Museum who led the expedition, said today the carcass was preserved because its lower part was stuck in pure ice.
The remains of a mammoth found in May 2013 on Malolyakhovskiy Island have yielded new hope in cloning hopes from the ancient animals, and also some intriguing puzzles. One is this: did woolly mammoth blood have a special natural quality that prevented it freezing, as scientists now suspect? Despite a temperature of minus 10C, the blood was liquid.
Another is: why are the mammoth remains in a better condition after tens of thousands of years than a dead human after six months?
Other new facts on these mammoth remains which, because of the quality of preservation, are crucial to current efforts at cloning, are these: the carcass is some 28,000 years old, according to Dutch experts from Groningen University, some 15,000 years ‘younger’ than originally believed;
This lead us to think that this animal died not at the last ide age but at one of the previous ones….There were many ice ages…but this could also be a mistake as scientists studiing this mammoth previously thought it was 15 thousand years older, a tiny mistake!

ESTONIA
Five mammoth molars, four pieces of tusk and one bone fragment found in different parts of Estonia were radiocarbon dated…. These remains originate from an ice-free period during the last ice age….Two molars from Puurmani, central Estonia gave an age of ca 10,000 BP,  BP stands for before present, which is actually before 1945, after this, because of the nuclear Bombs, carbon 14 reading are unreliable suggesting mammoths were living in northeast Europe then.
USA: WAHINGTON
The tip of a projectile point made of mastodon bone is embedded in a rib of a single disarticulated mastodon at the Manis site in the state of Washington. Radiocarbon dating and DNA analysis show that the rib is associated with the other remains and dates to 13,800 years ago. Thus, osseous bone projectile points, common to the Beringian Upper Paleolithic and Clovis, were made and used during pre-Clovis times in North America. The Manis site, combined with evidence of mammoth hunting at sites in Wisconsin, provides evidence that people were hunting proboscideans  elephants types at least two millennia before Clovis.

Figure 17- mammoth teeth
OTHER ANIMAL EXTINCTION OF THE SAME PERIOD:

Bones of from 14 archaeological sites along the California coast indicate that humans hunted  a type of  flightless sea duck Chendytes lawi  for at least 8,000 years before it was driven to extinction. Direct 14C dates on Chendytes bones show that the duck was exploited on the southern California islands as early as ≈ 11,150-10,280 calendar years B.P., and on the mainland by at least 8,500 calendar years B.P.  10,500 BC The brief window now attributed to the Clovis culture ≈13,300-12,900 B.P. seems inconsistent with an overhunting event.
THE OLDEST AMERICANS

Figure 19-“Native American” artifacts from the Aucilla and Wacissa rivers.
Arranged chronologically from left to right, they are Clovis spear point,  Bolen, Kirk, and Newnan knives, Lafayette and Hernando projectile points, probably thrown with the aid of an atlatl, and Pinellas a true arrowhead shot with a bow.

When the first Floridians arrived, the climate was drier and the sea level lower than today. Dry land extended miles into what is now the Gulf of Mexico. Water levels were lower in rivers and lakes. Throughout the length of where the Aucilla area Florida, 40 km East of Talahassse runs a series of sinkholes. These sinkholes were a major source of freshwater, and mastodons and other large animals congregated around them to drink. Known today as Paleoindians, north Florida’s first inhabitants hunted around these watering holes with chert spear points attached to ivory shafts.

Figure 20- Mammoth versus mastodon
In 1993, archeologists from the University of Florida recovered a 7.5 foot mastodon tusk from the site along the Aucilla River. Eight long cut marks indicated that it had been removed from the skull by humans. Radiocarbon dated the tusk at 12,200 years ago, one of the earliest records of human activity in North America .
In the 1980s, archaeologists from the Florida Museum of Natural History opened an excavation in an Aucilla sinkhole. They found nine stone flakes that a someone must have chipped from a larger stone  to make tools…. They also found a mastodon tusk, scarred by circular cut marks from a knife. The tusk was 14,500 years old. The age was surprising… for it suddenly made the sinkhole one of the earliest places in the Americas to betray the presence of human beings. Curiously, though, scholars largely ignored the discoveries of the Aucilla River Prehistory Project, instead clinging to the conviction that America’s earliest settlers arrived more recently, some 13,500 years ago. But now the sinkhole is getting a fresh look, along with several other provocative archaeological sites that show evidence of an earlier human presence in the Americas, perhaps much earlier.
LEGEND ABOUT THE POTATO
The Sapallas were a peaceful and prosperous people who were invaded by the belligerent Karis, enslaved and reduced to misery.  Choque, a young descendant from the last Sapalla cacique refused to acknowledge this state of things and cried out for help from the father of the gods, Pachacamac. He heard young Choque’s petition and showed him some seeds from a plant unknown to men of that time, telling him to plant it and eat its roots, but never touch the sprouts, flowers or leaves, as they were poisonous.
The Sapallas did as they were told, but the Karis found the new plantations, confiscated them and ate everything the plants produced, except for the roots. As a consequence, they became ill and debilitated, prompting the former slaves to rebel against them and expel them from their land. The new plant was then considered as a divine gift, and called papa potato.

HUMAN AND POTATO PRE-HISTORY
Monte Verde is an archaeological site in southern Chile, currently situated some 35 miles 45 kilometers east of the Pacific coast on Chinchihuapi Creek. Discoveries made there are shaking up the archaeological world.

Figure 21- Monte Verde Location – Chile
The evidence from Monte Verde supports the thesis that this site was occupied by humans at least 14,800 years ago, which makes it the oldest widely accepted site of human habitation in the Americas. Mastodon bones in a riverbank drew attention to the Monte Verde site. Experts estimate the animal weighed two tons mammoths are bigger and can weight 4 tons.

Figure 22- Mammoth left versus mastodon  right
Finds also included a chunk of mastodon meat, remains of llama, shellfish, fish, small mammals, edible seeds, mushrooms, tubers, berries, stalks, and wild potatoes and 9 species of sea weeds. Remains of 45 different plant species were found on site, over 20% of them originating over 150 miles away. Some of the plants came from the coast some 56 miles 90 km to the west back then, others from marshes, forests, and arid grasslands. It is therefore likely that those people engaged in trade with other people in other locations.
WHERE DID THE RESIDENTS OF MONTE VERDE COME FROM?
This question brings up lots of other questions and even more arguments.

Figure 23-The Land Bridge Route paleomigration map- offical theory
The most common theory of migration into the Americas involves the Land Bridge from Asia known as Beringia a land now underwater, in the straight of Bearing. According to this theory, the first people in the Americas walked across from Siberia to Alaska, following big game. From there, they found their way south and east through an hypothetical ice-free corridor that opened up between mile-high ice sheets around 13,000 years ago. Red line in map
But a site in southern Chile is older than the ice-free corridor. Actually, the Beringia theory is so widely accepted that some archaeologists declared the Monte Verde dates to be impossible because they came before the Beringia dates.
Then another theory surfaced – the coastal route. Harvard archaeologist Carol Mandryk said the ice-free corridor idea through Canada wouldn’t work because even after the ice sheets began to melt 13,000 years ago, vegetation would have been too scarce to support big game. Instead, she said, people came down the coast in small boats.
In this case, people came from Asia but rather than walking, they took the sea route, hugging the edge of the coast and ice, until they reached what’s now Oregon, which was ice-free. From there, people populated the rest of the Americas.
But at 14,800 years old, Monte Verde predates the known sites in Oregon. Well, some argued, rising sea levels had covered all evidence of earlier passage. Or the bands of people were so small, they were “archaeologically invisible.”
THE SOLUTREAN SOLUTION
Dr. Dennis Stanford, head of Archaeology of the National Museum of Natural History, the Smithsonian, a former Clovis Firster, changed his mind and came up with what’s been called the Solutrean Solution, claiming that people from northern Spain/southern France brought advanced technologies like weaving, sewing, painting, atlatls, and stone work across the North Atlantic by taking boats north from Europe toward Greenland and then south, hugging the shore/ice until they reached modern-day southeastern USA. This Solutrean stonework then turned into the famous Clovis points that spread east to west across the continent with trade. Solutrean path is marked in red on map
An interesting theory – with many critics. However, in order for those people to reach Monte Verde, they would have had to go the length of the Americas and around the tip of South America to the west side, during the Ice Age, when the Patagonian ice sheet covered the whole area.
EMBARRASING WHALES OF MICHIGAN AND CANADA
The discovery of fossil whale bones in Michigan has been a source of some embarrassment for the conventional geologic narrative of the history of the Great Lakes region, which maintains that the area has remained above sea level for 290 million years since the end of the Pennsylvanian period , as whale fossils are evidence that the land was beneath the sea.
The fossil whales and walrus of Michigan and other areas are clearly evidence that the land of the Great Lakes region has emerged from the sea only quite recently.
The fossil whale finds  include remains from a finback whale Balaenoptera, a sperm whale Physeter, and a right whale Balaena.
Geologist Alexander Winchell  a United States geologist, mentioned the discovery of a fossil caudal tail vertebra from a large whale in a report of the Geologic Survey of Michigan in 1861. The fossil was from Western Michigan.
Geologist Russel C. Hussey reported on several discoveries of whale bones in Michigan, acquired by the University of Michigan Museum of Paleontology.
One lumbar verteber and two ribs of a sperm whale were dug from a swamp, in Lenawee County.  The presence of whale fossils in Michigan is curious since whales live in the ocean, and they rarely venture near the shores, and don’t live near the arctic.
A large rib, illustrated at right, from a bowhead whale, was found at Oscoda, Iosco County, in 1928 during an excavation in the southwest corner of the local schoolhouse.
A large rib of a finback whale was discovered near Thedford Center northeast of Mt. Morris, Genesee County.
Fossil walrus remains Odobenus have also been found, including a portion of a skull, from an ancient elevated beach on Mackinac Island North Michigan.
Sperm whale teeth have been found by people walking Michigan beaches. A sperm whale tooth that was found on the bottom organic material and wood dated to about 40,000 years old!” Holman, 1995, p. 207.
Figure 25 – Americas 14,000 bc
FROZEN BISON IN SIBERIA
Working in northeastern Siberia, researchers describe a complete bison cadaver that’s literally been frozen in time for the last 9,300 years. Like many other charismatic megafauna featured in ancient cave art, the steppe bison Bison priscus went extinct at the end of the Ice Age around 11,000 years ago.
This four-year-old male was discovered in mid-August of 2011 by members of the Yukagir tribal community during their traditional summer activities on the shore of Lake Chukchalakh in the Yana-Indigirka Lowland of Yakutia, Russia. Members of the Yukagir found two other frozen corpses in this permafrost graveyard as well: a young woolly mammoth Mammuthus primigenius from the Late Pleistocene and a wild horse Equus sp. from the Holocene, like the bison.
The Yukagir bison mummy is the most complete one ever found: 100 % , they say, including the snout, the tips of the ears, the tail, and everything in between. Until this find, just a couple other permafrost bison mummies have been described, including “Blue Babe” from Alaska and the “Mylakhchin bison” from Yakutia. This mummy is also “one out of two adult specimens that are being kept preserved with internal organs and stored in frozen conditions,” Natalia Serduk of the Russian Academy of Sciences says in a news release.
Its brain, heart, blood vessels, genitalia, and digestive system complete with stomach and intestinal contents are still intact, though some have shrunk over time. His age was based on an examination of incisor eruption and wear; he likely weighed between 500 and 600 kilograms, and the distance between the horns tips is an impressive 75 centimeters.
POTATO EATING PEOPLE:
Archaeological evidence suggests that people were consuming potatoes in the Andes as early as 13,000 years ago . Potato Solanum tuberosum belongs to the Solanaceae family…It is generaly thought that was first domesticated in South America, in the Andean highlands, between Peru and Bolivia, more than 10,000 years ago.
Until 1997 no site was widely accepted as pre-dating the Clovis culture 11,000 to 11,500 radiocarbon years BP. That year, a blue-ribbon commission of Paleoindian specialists visited Monte Verde 41°30’17” S 73°12’16”, a site in Chile with dates averaging 12,500, and declared it to be valid.
The Monte Verde archaeological site is in the region of the sub-Antarctic and evergreen softwood forest, in the low mountains of the South of Chile. There, a group of people that lived there throughout the beaches and banks of sand and gravel of a small stream about 14.800 years ago.
After the occupation of this site, a turf coating formed by a swamp covered the entire site and allowed the conservation of this impression of the human past. The archaeological works of the Austral University of Chile achieved the discovery of these rests of housing, wood devices, vegetal food rests, such as wild potatoes, and animal bones among which there are rests of 5 or 6 mastodons, as carrion or hunting food, showing an early human fitness to “Valdiviano” type humid temperate forest.
Among the lithic tools recovered, we can mention round rocks of the size of an egg, some of which could be useful as stones of sling, and bolas. Likewise, a spike- shape extended cylindrical stone that could have been used for drilling. Other findings were odd stone devices with sheet shapes, including a nucleus and a chopper and the rests of 2 long lanceolate tip projectiles, similar to those known as El Jobo projectile tips found in the early scopes of Venezuela. In wood devices a lance tip shape, digging sticks, three handles with scrapers mounted thereon and three mortars rustically worked are included.

•    PLATO

PLATO, THE TALE OF SOLON TIMEAUS
Plato, the most famous of the ancient Greek philosopher, is the primary source of text about Atlantis. He wrote two books about it, the Timeaus , a book  which describes the situation at the time of Atlantis, the war between the powers of the North  deemed Athenians in the story  and the south , Atlantis. The second , the Critias, is a more detailed description of Atlantis itself.

Here is an extract of the Timeaus which del with the story of Atlantis:

“In the Egyptian Delta, at the head of which the river Nile divides, there is a certain district called the district of Sais probably Suez, and the great city of the district is also called Sais, and is the city from which King Amasis came.

The citizens have a deity for their founder. She is called in the Egyptian tongue Neith and is asserted by them to be the same whom the Hellenes call Athena. They are great lovers of the Athenians, and say that they are in some way related to them.

In ancient Greece, Athena was the goddess of war, strength, civilization, wisdom, strategy, crafts, justice and skills. Athena was also the companion of heroes such as Ulysses in the Odyssey and the goddess of heroic endeavour. She is the virgin patron of Athens. The Athenians built the Parthenon on the Acropolis of her namesake city, Athens, in her honour.

To this city came Solon, and was received there with great honour. He asked the priests who were most skilful in such matters, about antiquity, and made the discovery that neither he nor any other Hellene knew anything worth mentioning about the times of old.

On one occasion, wishing to draw them on to speak of antiquity, he began to tell them about the most ancient things in our part of the world Greece about Phoroneus  who is called “the first man” and about Niobe  and after the Deluge, of the survival of Deucalion  and Pyrrha and he traced the genealogy of their descendants and reckoning up the dates, tried to compute how many years ago the events of which he was speaking happened.

Thereupon one of the priests, who was of a very great age, said:

“O Solon, Solon, you Hellenes are never anything but children, and there is not an old man among you”.
Solon in return asked him what he meant.
“I mean to say, he replied, that in mind you are all young, there is no old opinion handed down among you by ancient tradition, nor any science which is old with age. I will tell you why.
There have been, and will be again, many destructions of mankind arising out of many causes. The greatest have been brought about by the agencies of fire and water, and other lesser ones by innumerable other causes.
There is a story, which even you have preserved, that once upon a time Paethon, the son of Helios, having yoked the steeds in his father’s chariot, because he was not able to drive them in the path of his father, burnt up all that was upon the earth, and was himself destroyed by a thunderbolt.

Now this has the form of a myth, but really signifies a declination of the bodies moving in the heavens around the earth, and a great conflagration of things upon the earth , which recurs after long intervals.

At such times those who live upon the mountains and in dry and lofty places are more liable to destruction than those who dwell by rivers or on the seashore. From this calamity may the Nile, our never-failing saviour, delivers and preserves us.
When, on the other hand, the gods purge the earth with a deluge of water, the survivors in your country are herdsmen and shepherds who dwell on the mountains, but those who, like you, live in cities are carried by the rivers into the sea. Whereas in this land, water never come down from above on the fields, but always tends to come up from below. For which reason the traditions preserved here are the most ancient.

The fact is, that wherever the extremity of winter frost or of summer does not prevent, mankind exist, sometimes in greater, sometimes in lesser numbers. whatever happened either in your country Greece i.e. Europe or in ours Egypt, or in any other region that we know of, if there were any actions noble or great or in any other way remarkable, they have all been written down by us of old, and are preserved in our temples.

Just when you and other nations are beginning to be provided with literacy and the other requisites of civilized life, after the usual interval, the stream from heaven, like a pestilence, comes pouring down , and leaves only those of you who are destitute of education. You have to begin all over again, like children and know nothing of what happened in ancient times, either among us or among yourselves .

As for those genealogies of yours which you just now recounted to us, Solon, they are no better than the tales of children.
First, you remember a single deluge only, but there were many previous ones.

Next you do not know that there formerly dwelt in your land the fairest and noblest race of men  which ever lived, and that you and your whole city are descended from a small seed or remnant of them which survived. This was unknown to you, because, for many generations, the survivors of that destruction died, leaving no written word.

“There was a time, Solon, before the great deluge of all , when the city which now is Athens was first in war and in every way the best governed of all cities, is said to have performed the noblest deeds and to have had the fairest constitution of any of which tradition tells, under the face of heaven….”

Solon marvelled at his words, and earnestly requested the priests to inform him exactly and in order about these former citizens.

“You are welcome to hear about them, Solon”, said the priest, both for your own sake and for that of your city, and above all, for the sake of the goddess  who is the common patron and parent and educator of both our cities. She founded your city a thousand years(1000)  before ours, receiving from the Earth and Hephaestus the seed of your race, and afterwards she founded ours, of which the constitution is recorded in our sacred registers to be eight thousand years old (8000) .”

As as regards your citizens of nine thousand years ago, I will briefly inform you of their laws and of their most famous action. The exact particulars of the whole we will hereafter go through at our leisure in the sacred registers themselves. If you compare these very laws with ours you will find that many of ours are the counterpart of yours as they were in the olden time.

Many great and wonderful deeds of your country are recorded in our histories. But one of them exceeds all the rest in greatness and valour.

These histories tell of a mighty power which unprovoked made an expedition against the whole of Europe and Asia , and to which your city put an end.
This power came forth out of the Atlantic Ocean. In those days the Atlantic was navigable .
There was an island situated beyond the straits you call the Pillars of Heracles . The island was larger than Libya  and Asia  put together, and was the way to other islands. From these you might pass to the whole of the opposite continent  which surrounded the true ocean .

Plato in Timaeus, describe Atlantis in details, it is clear that like Antarctica it is a very mountainous country:

“The whole country was described as being very lofty and precipitous on the side of the sea, but the country immediately about and surrounding the city was a level plain, itself surrounded by mountains which descended toward the sea; it was smooth and even, but of an oblong shape, extending in one direction three thousand stadia,  and going up the country from the sea through the centre of the island two thousand stadia;  the whole region of the island lies toward the south, and is sheltered from the north.

This sea   which is within the Straits of Heracles is only a harbour, having a narrow entrance, but that other is a real sea, and the surrounding land may be most truly called a boundless continent.

Now in this island of Atlantis there was a great and wonderful empire which ruled over the whole island and several others, and over parts of the continent.  Furthermore, the men of Atlantis had subjected the parts of Libya  North Africa within the columns of Heracles as far as Egypt, and of Europe as far as Tyrrhenia . This vast power, gathered into one like the Nato Alliance, endeavoured to subdue at a blow our country Egypt and yours Europe and the whole of the region within the straits .

Then, Solon, your country shone forth, in the excellence of her virtue and strength, among all mankind. It was pre-eminent in courage and military skill, and was the leader of the Hellenes .
When the rest abandoned Athens, being compelled to stand alone, after having undergone the very extremity of danger, it defeated and triumphed over the invaders, and preserved from slavery those who were not yet subjugated, and generously liberated all the rest of us who dwell within the pillars.

Afterwards violent earthquakes and floods occurred and in a single day and night of calamity, all your warriors all at once sank into the earth, and the island of Atlantis  also disappeared in the depths of the sea.
Nowadays the sea in those parts is impassable and impenetrable, because there is a shoal of mud  in the way caused by the subsidence of the island.”

Now the Critias elaborates on the above and give much description of Atlantis itself and its origin:

1)    THE ICES AGES
a)    TIME LINE:
Plato tales of Atlantis take place at the end of the last ice age, 9.500 years BC he says 9000 before his time, or 11,500 years ago. This date coincide nicely with the end of the last ice age.
Most commentator up to now have assumed that it was a mistake and that Atlantis , if it had existed at all must have been a much more recent event, and must have been confused with the Thera explosion 1600 BC and such like. This book attempts to demonstrate that Atlantis could not have happened in the time frame that Plato states.
Homo Sapiens  is much older than the time of the last ice age and it has made it presence known in France about 40,000 years ago. The magnificent drawings he left on the walls of cave such as Lascaux are witness of his intelligence and taste for art. About 20,000 years ago a new ice age overwhelmed Europe again and the surviving in.
Into Africa:
Homo sapiens emigrated to Africa, in the Sahara desert. Neanderthal man, who had occupied the European regions for the past 400,000 years, did not survive the last ice age. He did not emigrate to Africa, the last tribes remained in Gibraltar. If he did it was through interbreeding with homo sapiens .

THE QUATERNARY
The past 1.8 million years ago make up the Quaternary period. The Quaternary period is the most recent geologic age and the one in which Homo sapiens developed.
It is characterized by the presence of a large amount of  ice forming at the poles, no ice was present at the poles before, except during the snow ball ice age period 650 Million years ago. Figure 26-Figure 4-Graph of reconstructed temperature blue, CO2
green, and dust red from the Vostok ice core for the past 420,000 years.Wikipedia

By looking at the map of reconstructed temperatures during the Pleistocene, or glacial epoch, we can see repeated Ice Ages. In this map the warm peaks are interglacial periods which include the Eemian and at the far right, the present Holocene. From this map we can see some times as warm as the present.
The Allerød is a warm period which followed the last glaciation. The start of the Allerød  conventional date of 14,000 BP. Roberts 1998 uses 13,000 BP 11,000 BC for the end of the period.
The Greenland Oxygen isotope record shows the warming identified with the Allerød to be after about 14,100 BP and before about 12,900 BP. C-14 dates  from an excavation on the shore of Lake Neuchatel, Switzerland, furnish a date of 14,000 BP, calibrated, for the start of the Allerød.
Pollen cores from Berezina plain, Belarus, give 11,800-10,900 BP uncalibrated. Various researchers have similar ranges: 12,000-11,000, 11,700-11,000, etc. They all seem to roughly concur. The interstadial ended abruptly with a cold period that reduced temperatures back to near-glacial levels within a decade.
The Allerød occurred during the last interstadial of the Pleistocene: the Windermere of Britain, the Woodgrange of Ireland and the Two Creeks Interval of North America. Although interstadials are defined by region, the Allerød period is not, being global in its effects; that is, the temperature and sea level rose everywhere, not just in north Europe.
In addition, we can also see that a large global interglacial-glacial-interglacial climate oscillation has been reoccurring on approximately a 100,000 year periodicity for about the last 900,000 years.
ATLANTIS VERSUS HYPERBOREA
•    WHERE IS ATLANTIS?

o    IN THE NORTH POLE?
o    IN SOUTH AMERICA?
o    IN ANTARCTICA?
o    IN THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA?
o    IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN?
o    IN SWEDEN?
o    IN THE MEDITERRANEAN? – THERA
o    IN IRELAND?
o    IN THE BERMUDA TRIANGLE

Scholars dispute whether and how much Plato’s story or account was inspired by older traditions. Some scholars argue Plato drew upon memories of past events such as the Thera eruption or the Trojan War, while others insist that he took inspiration from contemporary events like the destruction of Helike in 373 BC or the failed Athenian invasion of Sicily in 415–413 BC.

SWEDEN
Olaus Rudbeck 1630 1702 also known as Olof Rudbeck the Elder was  born in Västerås in Sweden. He was a scientist and writer, a professor of medicine at Uppsala University and for several periods he was its rector magnificus.

Rudbeck is known for his contributions to human anatomy and linguistics, but he was also accomplished in music and botany.
He created the first botanical garden in Sweden at Uppsala, called Rudbeck’ s Garden, but which was renamed a hundred years later for a student of his son’s, the botanist Carolus Linnaeus.

Between 1679-1702  Rudbeck dedicated himself to contributions in historical-linguistics patriotism, writing a 3,000 page treatise in four volumes called Atlantica or “Atland eller Manheim in Swedish” Auroux, 2006 where he professed to prove that Sweden was Atlantis, the cradle of civilization, and Swedish the original language of Adam from which Latin and Hebrew had evolved .

Not surprisingly, his work was criticized by several authors, including the Danish professor Ludvig Holberg, and the Swedish author and physician Andreas Kempe, both of whom wrote satires based on Rudbeck’ s writings.

His work was later used by French writer Dennis Diderot in the article “Etymologie” of his famous “Encyclopédie” as a cautionary example of deceptive linking of etymology with mythical history Bandle, Oskar et al. 2002.

.

FLOOD LEGENDS FROM AROUND THE WORLD
AFRICA
EAST AFRICA

SOUTHWEST

TANZANIA
Once upon a time the rivers began to flood . The god told two people to get into a ship. He told them to take lots of seed and to take lots of animals.
The water of the flood eventually covered the mountains. Finally the flood stopped. Then one of the men, wanting to know if the water had dried up let a dove loose. The dove returned. Later he let loose a hawk which did not return. Then the men left the boat and took the animals and the seeds with them.
KENYA
KOMILILO NANDI
Ilet, the spirit of lightning, came to live, in human form, in a cave high on the mountain named Tinderet. When he did so, it rained incessantly and killed most of the hunters living in the forest below. Some hunters, searching for the cause of the rain, found him and wounded him with poison arrows. Ilet fled and died in a neighbouring country. When he died, the rain stopped.
MASAÏ
Tumbainot, a righteous man, had a wife named Naipande and three sons, Oshomo, Bartimaro, and Barmao. When his brother Lengerni died, Tumbainot, according to custom, married the widow Nahaba-logunja, who bore him three more sons. However, they argued often about her refusal to give him a drink of milk in the evening, so she set up her own homestead.
The world was heavily populated in those days, but the people were sinful and not mindful of God. However, they refrained from murder, until at last a man named Nambija hit another named Suage on the head.
At this, God resolved to destroy mankind, except Tumbainot who found grace in His eyes. God commanded Tumbainot to build an ark of wood and enter it with his two wives, six sons and their wives, and some of animals of every sort.
When they were all aboard and provisioned, God caused a great long rain which caused a flood, and all other men and beasts drowned. The ark drifted for a long time, and provisions began to run low.
The rain finally stopped, and Tumbainot let loose a dove to ascertain the state of the flood. The dove returned tired, so Tumbainot knew it had found no place to rest. Several days later, he loosed a vulture, but first he attached an arrow to one of its tail feathers so that, if the bird landed, the arrow would hook on something and be lost. The vulture returned that evening without the arrow, so Tumbainot reasoned that it must have landed on carrion, and that the flood was receding.
When the water ran away, the ark grounded on the steppe, and its occupants disembarked. Tumbainot saw four rainbows, one in each quarter of the sky, signifying that God’s wrath was over.

WEST AFRICA
MANDINGO
A charitable man gave away everything he had. The God Ouende rewarded him with riches, advised him to leave the area, and sent six months of rain to destroy his selfish neighbours. The descendants of the rich man became the present human race.
NORTH AMERICA
CHOCTAW FLOOD MYTH
There was total darkness for a great time over the whole of the earth; the Choctaw doctors or mystery-men looked out for daylight for a long time, until at last they despaired of ever seeing it, and the whole nation was very unhappy. At last a light was discovered in the North, and there was great rejoicing, until it was found to be great mountains of water rolling on, which destroyed them all, except a few families who had expected it and built a great raft, on which they were saved.
CREE FLOOD MYTH
Wisagatcak the Trickster built a dam across a stream in an attempt to capture the Great Beaver as it left its lodge. He waited all day until finally, at dusk, the huge creature swam toward him. Now, the Great Beaver possesses powerful magic and, as Wisagatcak prepared to spear it, created a spell that caused a muskrat to bite Wisagatcak in the behind, making him miss the target. Though spared, the Great Beaver was angry and wanted revenge. The next morning Wisagatcak was dumfounded. After being bitten, he had dismantled his dam, but the water level had not gone down even though the stream was now flowing freely through the spot where the dam had been. Even more strange-the water level continued to rise higher and higher.
The Great Beaver had worked powerful magic indeed; the entire world was flooding. For two weeks, the Great Beaver and the little beavers kept busy making all the waters of earth to rise until not one spot of dry land could be found. In great haste, Wisagatcak built a raft of logs and took many animals aboard with him. The water continued to rise for yet another two weeks.
At the end of the two weeks, the muskrat left the raft to search for land, but even the muskrat, who is accustomed to living between earth and water drowned. Then a raven left the raft. He flew around the entire world, but found no land, only water. Then Wisagatcak made his own magic with the help of a wolf on his raft. During the next two weeks on the raft, moss grew all over its surface.
The wolf ran around and around on the raft, causing the moss to become a magically expanding ground, until the raft was a vast land mass. However, to this very day, water springs up through holes in the ground -cracks in that original raft.

CREEK-NATCHEZ FLOOD MYTH
The dog  warned his master to build a raft because all things were about to be destroyed by a flood. The waters rose, lifting man and dog above the clouds into a wonderful land of trees. The dog told the man that the only way he could ever return to his homeland was if he, the dog, was thrown into the water.
The man was loyal to his friend and was reluctant to do this. The dog also told the man not to leave the raft for seven days after the waters had subsided.  With pain in his heart, the man threw the dog overboard. As the dog had predicted, the waters did subside and the man waited seven days as he was instructed. At the end of the seven days, multitudes of people approached the raft, some wet and dressed in rags, and others were dressed in finery. When they arrived at the raft it was clear that they were not humans, but spirits of the many killed in the flood.

KNISTENEAUX FLOOD MYTH
Many centuries ago a great flood covered the earth, destroying all the nations. At that time, all of the tribes of the Coteau des Prairies South Dakota climbed up the Coteau, a ridge emerging out of the prairie, in order to escape the rising waters. After the tribes had gathered, the water rose to cover them all, turning their bodies into a mass of red pipestone rock. From that day on, the Coteau has been considered neutral ground to all the tribes, and there they could meet in safety to smoke the peace pipe.
While the people were all drowning, a young virgin named K-wap-tah-w grabbed the foot of a very large bird who was flying over the Coteau. The bird carried her up to a high cliff, safely above the flood waters. Here the girl had twins fathered by the war-eagle. From those twins the world was repopulated.
MOJAVE-APACHE FLOOD MYTH
Many years ago, people lived under the ground. There came a time when there was no food, when the people sent a humming-bird up to see what he could find for them to eat. He saw the deep roots of a grapevine, which he followed up to the surface of the earth. The people went up through the hole and began living above ground. One day a man looked down into the hole made by the vine, through which the people had entered the upper world, and saw that water was rising up through it. The wise ones knew that a great flood was coming and that something had to be done to save humankind.
They then cut down a great tree and hollowed it out to make a canoe, placing a young girl in it. The tree-trunk canoe floated high on the waters until nothing but water could be seen in any direction. The wise ones had warned the girl not to leave the vessel until it touched land, even if she heard the waters going down.
Finally, the tree-trunk canoe touched ground. When the girl emerged, all the world had been drowned. She wondered whether she would always be alone. She went up to the mountains to rest. As she lay down, the sun shone on her, warming water that dripped down on her body from the rocks. This magic water impregnated her and she later gave birth to a daughter who conceived in the same way. All of us are descended from her.
PEOPLE OF MOUNT JEFFERSON
Twice, a great flood came. Afraid that another might come, the people made a giant canoe from a big cedar. When they saw a third flood coming, they put the bravest young men and young women in the canoe, with plenty of food. Then the flood, bigger and deeper than the earlier ones, swallowed the land. It rained for many days and nights, but when the clouds finally parted for the third time, the people saw land Mount Jefferson and landed on it. When the water receded, they made their home at the base of the mountain. The canoe was turned to stone and can be seen on Mount Jefferson today.

Figure 29-Machu-Pichu

SOUTH AMERICA
The flood myth of the Incas
Once there was a period called the Pachachama, when humankind was cruel, barbaric, and murderous. Human beings did whatever they pleased without any fear. They were so busy planning wars and stealing that they completely ignored the gods. The only part of the world that remained uncorrupted was the high Andes.
In the highlands of Peru there were two shepherd brothers who were of impeccable character. They became very concerned when their llamas acted strangely. The llamas stopped eating and spent the night gazing sadly up at the stars. When the brothers asked the llamas what was going on, they replied that the stars had told them that a great flood was coming that would destroy all creatures on earth.
The two brothers and their families decided to seek safety in the caves in the highest mountain. They took their flocks with them into a cave and then it began to rain. It rained for months without end.
Looking down from the mountains, they saw that the llamas were right: The entire world was being destroyed. They could hear the cries of the miserable dying humans below. Miraculously, the mountain grew taller and taller as the waters rose. Even so, the waters began to lap at the door of their cave. Then the mountain grew still higher.
One day they saw that the rain had ceased and that the waters were subsiding. Inti, the Sun-god, appeared once again and smiled, causing the waters to evaporate. Just as their provisions were running out, the brothers looked down to see that the earth was dry. The mountain then returned to its usual height, and the shepherds and their families repopulated the earth. Human beings live everywhere; llamas, however, remember the flood and prefer to live in the highlands

ATLANTIS COMMENTATORS In alphabetic order
1.    Ambrose Henry B.
Mr. Ambrose thinks that Atlantis was in UK:
Henry B. Ambrose 1917-2010 was born in Grayhawk, Kentucky and later worked as a real estate broker in California.
His contribution to the Atlantis saga is the simple claim that “England was at one time the powerful kingdom of Atlantis”.
He identifies Old Oswestry Hill Fort,  Shropshire 52 N- 3 W as its precise location. Mr. Ambrose claims to have found the Garden of Eden as well.
“The main island of Atlantis was inundated by flood waters from the receding glaciers of the North Pole when the earth shifted on its axis suddenly…This island became submerged gradually over time and Noah and other inhabitants of Atlantis  built boats to escape the flood waters…. Poseidon’s Citadel as described by Plato is now known as Old Oswestry Hillfort in Shropshire England. Carbon dating of agricultural pollen in the Severn Basin of Great Britain shows that conditions existed where crops could not grow which indicates it was flooded during a specific time period and this time coincides with the time of Atlantis….The flood waters have dispersed over the ocean causing the flooded island of Atlantis to once again become dry land. The book “I Found Atlantis” also covers where the Atlanteans fled and who the descendants are now”.
The problem I have with this location  UK is that all indications point to Atlantis being in the south, also it is much too small, as Atlantis  was said to be a large condiment as large as Lybia and Asia put together. Atlantis was a very elevated country too, and Uk is not .

2.    ALAN ALFORD
Born in 1961, Alan Alford was educated at King Edward VI Grammar School in Southampton, England and gained a degree in Commerce from the University of Birmingham in 1982…in 1995 he began his career as a writer.
The essence of his theory is that the story of Atlantis…was an allegory for the story of the creation of the Universe or an encrypted account of a secret tradition, which had been preserved for millennia by Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Greece.
The details of Alford’s theory are as follows:
•    Atlantis was a metaphor for the primeval underworld the interior of the earth;
•    the invasion of the known world by Atlantis allegorised the eruption of the underworld;
•    Ancient Athens represented the ideal city – an archetypal and metaphorical ‘city’ – which fell from the sky and defeated Atlantis by breaking into the underworld.
I disagree with this theory because I think that the story of Atlantis is true. For me it is not an allegory. It can be used as an allegory now because it is an old story but it is based on a real event.
3.    ARYSIO NUNES SANTOS
Born in Belo Horizonte – Minas Gerais BRAZIL  24 of February, 1937 Prof. Arysio Nunes Santos is a Nuclear Physicist with a Ph. D. in Nuclear Physics and a Free-Docency  in Physical-Chemistry.
He also worked as a geologist and climatologist, making contributions to Ice Age Theory, particularly in what concerns Catastrophism and the reality of the Flood, the cataclysm which ultimately led to the demise of Atlantis-Eden. He proposed Atlantis identity with Eden and the other traditional Paradises, and reconstructed its history.
Mr. Santos has the interesting idea to link the tradition of Eden with that of Atlantis. In my opinion it is probable that the two events where contemporary of each other, but it is not certain. There could have been several catastrophic events leading to massive floods and destruction of civilisations. Beside Eden was not a large place, nothing like a continent, and it was not on an island, it was just a large garden, an hacienda.

4.    ATHANASIUS KIRCHER
Athanasius Kircher was a German Roman Catholic Jesuit scientist-priest, he was Born on the 2nd  May 1601 or 1602 in Geisa, and Died on the 27th  November 1680 in Rome.
He was a scholar versed in oriental studies, geology, and medicine. He has been compared to Leonardo Da Vinci for his enormous range of interests, and has been honoured with the title “master of a hundred arts”.
Kircher was the “decipherer” of hieroglyphs of his day. He made an early study of Egyptian hieroglyphs, correctly establishing the link between the ancient Egyptian language and the Coptic language, for which he is considered the founder of Egyptology. Kircher’s work included studies of volcano and fossils.
He is the author of the famous map of Atlantis, a work of imagination, probably. this map of Atlantis, places the lost island between Spain and America. As often in his time, the map is oriented upside down, with the south on top. The main island of Atlantis is accompanied by two smaller, unnamed ones to its right west.
Kircher has the merit of drawing a large, continent size island, and of placing it in the Atlantic.
I have flipped the Kircher map to make it easier to understand to modern minds:

However, Plato does not say that the Island was near the pillars of Hercules, but beyond meta the pillars of Hercules, which could be anywhere, except in the Mediterranean sea. The Atlantic Ocean is very mountainous and a very longue range of volcanic mountains run all along its length. It is unlikely that a civilisation ever flourished there, and was suddenly flooded, but I keep an open mind. It is so far on of the best theories.
5.    Comyns Beaumont
William Comyns Beaumont, 1873–1956 was a British journalist and author. He was a staff writer for the Daily Mail newspaper, and editor of “the Great Eight” papers and magazines including the London Magazine, Illustrated London News, Bystander, National Graphics, Passing Show, and Pan.
He also used the pseudonym, “Appian Way “.
Alfred de Grazia 1981, Page 8 describes him as a prominent catastrophist. John Michell describes Beaumont thus:
“His main subjects were mythology, early history, geology, and ancient astronomical records. In all of them he found convincing evidence that the earth had suffered many cataclysms in the course of its history, the most recent having occurred in about 1322 B.C.”.
Beaumont suggested they were caused by meteoric impacts which in turn are closely related to comets movements. That belief was the cornerstone of Beaumont’s revolution theories. He believed England to be the location of Atlantis..
6.    FRANK JOSEPH contemporary
Frank Joseph USA is the author of a dozen published books about metaphysics, military and ancient history released in as many foreign languages. He has been a repeat guest with Shirley MacLaine on her internet program, with Whitley Strieber on “Dreamland”, “Coast-to-Coast” with Art Bell, “The Jeff Rense Show”, etc.
A feature writer for “Fate”, “Command”, and “Atlantis Rising” magazines, his articles about military aviation have been published by the Department of Defence.
Frank Joseph proposes that the Mayan Calendar was brought to Mexico by survivors of Atlantis. He believes that the Atlantean culture has influenced in both ancient Mesoamerican culture and ancient Egyptian culture, he links the demise of Atlantis with the birth of the Olmec civilization in Mexico the predecessors of the Maya, the beginning of the first Egyptian dynasty, and the start of the Mayan Calendar.
Joseph correlates the Mayan Calendar’s eternal cycle of global creation, destruction, and renewal with scientific studies on glacial ice cores and predictions from the Hopi, the Incas, and the Scandinavian Norse.
He thinks that 2012 could be the start of a new ice age and the advent of a massive solar storm. However, Joseph shows that the Maya knew the way to re-establish civilization’s cosmic balance  Joseph, ATLANTIS AND 2012 .
Frank Joseph believes that government, and media around the world have ignored the research showing global warming is actually the precursor to a new ice age. The Atlanteans insatiable appetite for material prosperity and military might mirror the world governments of today.
7.    BERLITZ CHARLES
Born, IN New York, November 20th , City, USA he Die in Tamarac, Florida December 18th , 2003 .
Berlitz was a Linguist, and author known for his books on language-learning courses as well as his work on anomalous phenomena.
Berlitz spent 13 years on active duty in the U.S. Army, mostly in intelligence.
In his book, Atlantis, “The Eighth Continent” gives evidence for the existence of an island on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Berlitz points out that the Ridge would have been above water during the last ice age. Comparisons of languages on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean for similar words, migratory paths of certain animals, archaeological anomalies, and an analysis of flood mythology from around the world are used to support the basic premise .
This is similar to Kircher hypothesis, and therefore quite logical and closely follows Plato. It is true that during the ice age, many of the Mid-Atlantic ridge would have been above water.
However we are not talking about the ice age here, as it ended 12,000 years ago, if anything, this period of 9,500 BC was warmer than today.  Therefore it is not certain that the peaks of the mid-Atlantic would have been any more visible than they are today.
The correspondence in myths , legends and languages can also be explained by another theory such as Atlantis being in Antarctica.

8.    THE BIBLE
The flood myth of the bible may be connnected to Atlantis. Althought the bible got the date wrong, it is very possible that ti refers to the same event:
YHWH  saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. YHWH was sorry that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him to his heart….YHWH said, “I will blot out man whom I have created…I am sorry that I have made them.” But Noah found favour in the eyes of YHWH. These are the Records of Noah.
Noah was a righteous man, blameless in his generation…. Noah had three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Now the earth was corrupt in God’s sight, and the earth was filled with violence.
…God said to Noah, “I have determined to make an end of all flesh; for the earth is filled with violence …Make yourself an ark of gopher wood; make rooms in the ark, and cover it inside and out with pitch….Of  the birds according to their kinds, and of the animals according to their kinds, of every creeping thing of the ground according to its kind, two of every sort shall come in to you, to keep them alive. Also take with you every sort of food that is eaten, and store it up; and it shall serve as food for you and for them.” Noah did this; he did all that God commanded him.Genesis 6
……………
The flood continued forty days upon the earth; and the waters increased, and bore up the ark, and it rose high above the earth. The waters prevailed and increased greatly upon the earth; and the ark floated on the face of the waters. And the waters prevailed so mightily upon the earth that all the high mountains under the whole heaven were covered; the waters prevailed above the mountains, covering them fifteen cubits deep. ….He blotted out every living thing that was upon the face of the ground, man and animals and creeping things and birds of the air; they were blotted out from the earth. Only Noah was left, and those that were with him in the ark. And the waters prevailed upon the earth a hundred and fifty days.Genesis 7
…………………
And God made a wind blow over the earth, and the waters subsided; the fountains of the deep and the windows of the heavens were closed, the rain from the heavens was restrained, and the waters receded from the earth continually… At the end of a hundred and fifty days the waters had abated; and in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, the ark came to rest upon the mountains of Ararat.[1] In the six hundred and first year, in the first month, the first day of the month, the waters were dried from off the earth; and Noah removed the covering of the ark, and looked, and behold, the face of the ground was dry. In the second month, on the twenty-seventh day of the month, the earth was dry. …
Then God said to Noah, “Go forth from the ark, you and your wife, and your sons and your sons’ wives with you. Bring forth with you every living thing that is with you of all flesh – birds and animals and every creeping thing that creeps on the earth – that they may breed abundantly on the earth, and be fruitful and multiply upon the earth.”

Figure 31-http://www.livius.org/a/turkey/ararat/ararat_nw.JPG- Mt Ararat is highest Mountain in North Turkey
I will not comment on this as it is an ancient text. It must be stated that I use this text as reference and not as God’s word.
9.    MADAME BLAVATSKY
The civilization of Atlantis
Atlantis, in the Theosophical cosmology, was a continent that covered a significant part of what is now the Atlantic Ocean. The large continent of Atlantis is said to have “first divided, and then broken later on into seven peninsulas and islands”. When the main part of Atlantis began to sink, Atlantean settlers migrated to the new lands which were rising to the east, west, and south.
These new lands became the Americas, Africa, parts of Asia, and the present European countries, stretching from the Ural mountains of Russia, westward to include the islands of Ireland and Britain, and even farther westward than that in former times.
Some emigrants from the remaining islands in the Atlantic settled on new islands to the east which later consolidated into what is now the district of the Abyssinian highlands and lands somewhat to the north.
Atlantis perished through flooding and submergence in 9,564 BC, and its destruction is explained by claiming successive disturbances in the axial rotation of Earth which caused earthquakes which led to the sudden sinking of Atlantis. Blavatsky asserted humanity was presently in the fifth root race, the Aryan race, which Theosophists believe to have emerged from the previous fourth root race Atlantean root race beginning about 100,000 years ago in Atlantis.
Here I disagree with the hypothesis that Atlantis was broken up into the present continent of Europe, America, Africa  and Asia. This theory is similar to the scientific theory of Pangaea, but Pangaea was much more  ancient and no civilisation is thought to have occupied it.
However I agree that Atlantis inhabitants dispersed after the cataclysm and settled in those different areas. I do not believe that Atlantis was as old as 100,000 years.
10.    BROWN HUGH AUCHINCLOSS
23 December 1879 – 19 November 1975 was an electrical engineer best known for advancing a theory of catastrophic pole shift. Brown claimed that massive accumulation of ice at the poles caused recurring tipping of the axis in cycles of approximately 4000-7500 years.
Brown argued that because the earth wobbles on the axis and the crust slides on the mantle, a shift was demonstrably imminent, and suggested the use of nuclear explosions to break-up the ice to forestall catastrophe .
It goes without saying that I would not approve of the use of nuclear weapons in this case or any other.
However I do believe that the earth has slipped off its axis more than once. Science has proves that the poles were not always at their present locations. Indeed continental drift is part of the present dogma of geological science. However is believed that every happened very slowly. I believe that occasionally geological events happen suddenly like earthquakes but on a much bigger scale.
11.    PROFESSOR CHARLES HAPGOOD
Charles Hutchins Hapgood May 17, 1904 – December 21, 1982 was an American college professor and author who became one of the advocates of a claim of a rapid and recent pole shift with catastrophic results. In Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings 1966, Professor Charles Hapgood suggests  that maps like the Piri Re’is hint at an advanced seafaring civilisation about 12,000 years  ago.
Remnants of their knowledge, he proposes, survived in the Alexandrian library until  its destruction in AD 640, and were incorporated into later maps. These ideas were  recycled by Graham Hancock.  Hapgood also examined a 1531 map by French mathematician and cartographer Oronce Finé aka Oronteus Finaeus.
In Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings, he reproduces letters received from the chief of a U.S. Air Force cartography section stationed at Westover AFB in 1961. At Hapgood’s request, they had studied both Piri Reis and Oronce Finé  maps during their off-duty hours, concluding that both were compiled from original source maps of Antarctica at a time when it was relatively free of ice, supporting Hapgood’s findings.
Hapgood concluded that advanced cartographic knowledge appears on the Piri Reis map and the Oronteus Finaeus map, and must be the result of some unknown and advanced ancient civilization that developed astronomy, navigational instruments, plane geometry and trigonometry, long before Greece or any other known civilization.
12.    COSMIC-VORTEX
ALIEN VISITORS FROM SIRIUS- FIRST CONTACT.
This is quite similar to the Eric von Däniken version: Atlantis was created by aliens and created civilisation on Earth.
The Atlantis Motherland book explains that Plato’s Atlantis Dialogues reveal the fascinating story of an advanced being that visited Earth, and made contact with a primitive tribe of Earth beings. This extraterrestrial visitor became revered as a god, which the Greeks called Poseidon. This god had friendly intentions and a benevolent spirit, and used advanced technologies to build the original city of Atlantis. …The Atlantis Motherland book calls our loving, playful, benevolent extraterrestrial ancestors, Xylanthians, from the planet Xylanthia, in the Sirius Star System. Neanderthal man was civilised by aliens and were call gods.

NEW BOOK IDENTIFIES IRELAND AS ATLANTIS
The Hill of Tara may have been the capital of the ancient Atlantis, according to the new theory. A new book investigating the myth of Atlantis says that the mythical land was actually the island of Ireland. The claim is made by geologist Ulf Erlingsson in his book ‘Atlantis from a Geographer’s Perspective: Mapping the Fairy Land’, who is to visit Ireland on  August 11 to 13.
In his book Erlingsson bases his evidence on Plato’s description of Atlantis which, according to Erlingsson, matches Ireland perfectly. Statistically, the scientist claims, the probability is over 99.98% that Plato was describing Ireland.
Erlingsson says: “Just like Atlantis, Ireland is 300 miles long, 200 miles wide, and widest over the middle. They both feature a central plain that is open to the sea, but fringed by mountains. No other island on earth even comes close to this description.”
“What has led most students astray is that Atlantis sank in the sea”, says Dr Erlingsson. “It is an ‘Atlantic myth’ all right – but a myth from, not about, Atlantis”.

“The island that sank was Dogger Bank. It was struck by a disastrous flood-wave around 6,100 BC, and now rests deep under the waves of the North Sea.”
In the book, Dr Erlingsson shows how the Atlantic Empire probably can be associated with the megalithic monuments of Europe and Northern Africa. Their geographic distribution matches the extent of the Atlantic Empire as Plato described it. The Atlantean capital can be connected with Tara, the legendary seat of the high king of Ireland.
Newgrange – a temple of Poseidon?

The temples of Poseidon and the ancestors match up well with the so-called passage tombs of Newgrange and Knowth, in the Boyne valley.
They are the oldest roofed buildings anywhere in the world.
Ulf Erlingsson has a Ph.D. in Physical Geography from Uppsala University. His specialty is geological processes, under-water research, and natural disasters.
HY-BRASIL
In 1684, the Irish historian O’Flaherty spoke about the enchanted island of Hy-Brasil: “From the Isles of Arran and the west continent often appears visible that enchanted island called O’Brasail and, in Irish, Beg Ara. Whether it be real and firm land kept hidden by the special ordnance of God, or the terrestrial paradise, or else some illusion of airy clouds appearing on the surface of the sea, or the craft of evil spirits, is more than our judgments can pound out.
NOW FOR AN UNIFIED THEORY
Atlantis could have been situated where Antarctica is now. At the other end of the world, Hyperborea main adversary and challenger, was located where the north pole and Greenland is now.
10,000 years ago, the planet was emerging from the last Ice Age.  However civilisation did not start then, it existed before mostly in the Northern Isles and the southern continent of Antarctica.
The ice was thicker in Northern Europe and North America, but the inclination of the earth Axis was slightly different to what it is now. The North Pole laid between 55  to 45  north and so was the Antarctica continent.
During and before the ice age, civilisation existed and flourished there, along the Northern and southern 45  parallels. It was at an advantage, being the sole controller of a vast contiment 5.4 million square miles or 14.0 million km². Antarctica is nearly twice as large as Australia 2.9 million square miles or 7.6 million km²  and larger than the present USA 3.1 million square miles or 8.1 million km²
Atlantis was where Antarctica is today, buried under kilometres of ice.
Plato, in the Critias, describes it as very mountainous :
“ The whole country was very lofty  and precipitous  on the side of the sea,  but the country immediately about and surrounding the city was a level plain, itself surrounded by mountains which descended toward the sea.

It was smooth and even, but of an oblong shape, extending in one direction three thousand stadia, and going up the country from the sea through the centre of the island two thousand stadia; the whole region of the island lies toward the south, and is sheltered from the north.”
Here he is talking about the province which immediately surround the capital city of Atlantis , which is also called Atlantis, and not about the whole superficies of the island continent itself.

I am theorising the the Capital lied in the Marie Byrd Land , on the present time Ross ice shelf, perhaps on the small island close to the shore of Marie Byrd land.
As Plato specify , the city lies toward the south and is sheltered from the north. The island lying in  the bay itself is a good candidate for the location of the capital city. The Ross sea  bay is well sheltered from the North and would have made a wonderful harbour when it was not glaciated. It seems according to some authors that Antarctica and part of Siberia did in fact, escape glaciation until about 10,000 BC.
“Two 16th-century nautical maps feature the outline of Antarctica’s coastline  .Most famous is the 1513 map by Ottoman navigator Admiral Piri Bin Haji Memmed, known as Piri Re’is.

Found in rubble at Istanbul’s Topkapi Palace in 1929, the map, half of which is missing, drew immense interest. It appears to place Africa, Europe and South America at the correct relative longitudes more than 200 years before John Harrison’s sea-clock and, most spectacularly of all, portrays the north coast of Antarctica, 300 years before it was recognised as a landmass.
Piri’s notes also refer to an Atlantic map by Columbus now lost and others from Alexander’s time 336-323 BC.
Piri Reis was born in 1465 approx. Gelibolu Gallipoli. He started in his career as a sailor, became a pirate captain and achieved to be the Admiral of the Ottoman navy, helped to Sultan to turn Mediterranean sea to an Ottoman lake .

I theorise that Athens of the time of Atlantis, is identical with the Hyperborea of other Greek myths.
Here is a description of Hyperborea Athens by Plato in the Critias:
“Of the combatants on one side, the city of Athena was …the leader…the combatants on the other side were commanded by the kings of Atlantis…
I must describe first of all Athenians of that day, and their enemies who fought with them, and then the respective powers and governments of  the two kingdoms. Let us give the precedence to Athens.
In the days of old, the gods had the whole earth distributed among them by allotment….
Hephaestus and Athena, who were brother and sister… being united also in the love of  philosophy and art, both obtained as their common portion, this land…
Military pursuits were then, common to men and women. Therefore the people of those days in accordance with the custom of the time, set up a figure …of the goddess in full armour, to be a testimony that all …male as well as female, may, if they please, practise in common the virtue which belongs to them without distinction of sex .
Now the country was inhabited in those days by various classes of citizens. There were artisans, and there were farmers, and there was a warrior class originally set apart by divine men .
The latter dwelt by themselves, and had all things suitable for nurture and education; neither had any of them anything of their own, but they regarded all that they had as common property; nor did they claim to receive of the other citizens anything more than their  necessary food . ..
The land was the best in the world, and was therefore able in those days to support a vast army, raised from the surrounding people…in those days the country…yielded far more abundant produce….
The whole country is only a long promontory extending far into the sea  away from the rest of the continent, while the surrounding basin of the sea is everywhere deep in the neighbourhood of the shore.
Many great deluges  have taken place during the nine thousand years…elapsed since the time of which I am speaking .
During all this time and through so many changes, there has never been any considerable accumulation of soil coming down from the mountains, as in other places, but the earth has fallen away all round and sunk out of sight….
But in the primitive state of the country, its mountains were high hills covered with soil, and the plains, as they are termed by us, of Phelleus were full of rich earth, and there was abundance of forest in the mountains.
Of this last, traces still remain…the mountains now only afford sustenance to bees, not so very long ago there were still to be seen roofs of timber cut from trees growing there, which were of a size sufficient to cover the largest houses …
There were many other high trees, cultivated by man and bearing abundance of food for cattle.
Moreover, the land reaped the benefit of the annual rainfall… having an abundant supply in all places, and receiving it…and treasuring it… in the close clay soil.
It let off into the hollows the streams which it absorbed from the heights, providing everywhere abundant fountains and rivers of which there many…
Such was the natural state of the country which was cultivated.. by true farmers… of a noble nature and had the best soil in the world, and abundance of water, and in the heaven above, an excellent tempered climate.
Now the city in those days was arranged this way:
In a single night of excessive rain washed away the earth and laid bare the rock; at the same time there were earthquakes, and then occurred the extraordinary inundation , which was the third before the great destruction of Deucalion.  But in primitive times the hill…was all well covered with soil, and level at the top, except in one or two places.
Under the sides of the hill there dwelt artisans and the farmers as were tilling the ground nearby.
The warrior class dwelt by themselves…at the summit which they had enclosed with a single fence like the garden of a house.
On the north side they had dwellings in common and had erected halls for dining in winter, and had all the buildings which they needed for their common life, …there was no adorning of themselves  with gold and silver, they made no use of these for any purpose. They took a middle course between meanness and ostentation, and built modest houses in which they and their children’s children grew old, and they handed them down to others who were like themselves, always the same. In summer-time they left their gardens and gymnasia and dining halls, and the southern side of the hill was used for the same purpose. …There was a fountain, which was choked by the earthquake…but in those days the fountain gave an abundant supply of water for all and of suitable temperature in summer and in winter.
This is how they dwelt, being the guardians of their own citizens and the leaders of the Hellenes, aka Hyperboreans who were their willing followers. They took care to preserve the same number of men and women through all time …They were renowned all over Europe and Asia for the beauty of their persons and for the many virtues of their souls. Of all men who lived in those days, they were the most illustrious.
COMPARISON WITH THE HYPERBOREANS
HYPERBOREA was a fabulous realm of eternal spring located in the far north beyond the land of winter. Its people were a blessed, long-lived race free of war, hard toil, and the ravages of old age and disease. Hyperborea was usually described as a continent-bound land, bordered by the great earth-encircling river Okeanos  the Atlantis ocean to the north, and the great peaks of the mythical Rhipaion mountains to the south. Its main river was the Eridanos, which flowed south, drawing its waters directly from the Okean-stream.
The shores of this stream were lined by amber-bearing poplar trees and its waters inhabited by flocks of white swans. But most of the country was wild, covered with rich and beautiful forests, “the garden of Apollo.”
To the south the realm was guarded by the bitterly cold peaks of the near-impassable Rhipaion mountains. This was the home of Boreas, god of the north wind, whose chill breath brought winter to all the lands to the south, Scythia, Thrace, Istria, Celtica, Italy and Greece.
The peaks of the mountains were also the home of Griffins eagle-lions, and its valleys were inhabited by the fierce, one-eyed Arimaspoi tribe. Directly to the south lay Pterophoros, a desolate, snow-covered land cursed by eternal winter .
The ancient Greeks were sometimes called sons of Boreas [north wind]. Hyperborea is the land beyond or above the north : Diodorus Siculus , writing in the first century BC, gives us a description of Britain based, in part, on the voyage of Pytheas of Massillia Marseille, who sailed around Britain in 300 BC.
“the inhabitants, are simple and far removed from the shrewdness and vice… Their way of living is modest, since they are well clear of the luxury which is begotten of wealth. The island is also thickly populated and its climate is extremely cold, as one would expect, since it actually lies under the Great Bear . It is held by many kings and potentates, who for the most part live at peace among themselves.
Diodorus then tells a story about the Hyperboreans that was legendary already when he was writing:
“Of those who have written about the ancient myths, Hecateus and certain others say that in the regions beyond the land of the Celts Gaul there lies in the ocean an island no smaller than Sicily. This island, the account continues, is situated in the north, and is inhabited by the Hyperboreans, who are called by that name because their home is beyond the point whence the north wind blows; and the land is both fertile and productive of every crop, and since it has an unusually temperate climate it produces two harvests each year .
Diodorus is describing the same location, but we notice that the climate is so vastly different in the two descriptions. However, his description of Britain was based on the climate that prevailed at the time he was writing, and the legendary description is based on previous climatic conditions. Diodorus is relating an ancient legend:
“The Hyperboreans…have a language…which is peculiar to them, and are most friendly disposed towards the Greeks, and especially towards the Athenians and the Delians, who have inherited this goodwill from most ancient times”.
The myth also relates that:” …Abaris, a Hyperborean, came to Greece in ancient times and renewed the goodwill and kinship of his people to the Delians”…
“Hecateus and certain others say that in the regions beyond the land of the Celts Gaul there lies in the ocean an island no smaller than Sicily. This island…is situated in the north, and is inhabited by the Hyperboreans, who are called by that name because their home is beyond the point whence the north wind blows; and the land is both fertile and productive of every crop, and since it has an unusually temperate climate it produces two harvests each year”.
Diodorus remark  that the Atlanteans were at war with the Athenians. But the Greeks were related to the hyperboreans. After all, the Greeks are said to be “Sons of the North Wind,” Boreas.
The relationship of the Hyperboreans and the Delians   is stated by Herodotus:
“Certain sacred offerings wrapped up in wheat straw come from the Hyperboreans into Scythia, whence they are taken over by the neighbouring peoples in succession until they get as far west as the Adriatic: from there they are sent south, and the first Greeks to receive them are the Dodonaeans..” .
Herodotus tells us that Leto, the mother of Apollo, was born on the island of the Hyperboreans. The Hyperboreans may have introduced the Greeks to the worship of Apollo.
“There is on the island of Hyperborea a magnificent sacred precinct of Apollo and a notable temple which is adorned with many votive offerings and is spherical in shape. …In a city which is sacred to this god, the majority of its inhabitants are players on the cithara…”
“The moon viewed from this island, appears to be but a little distance from the earth and to have upon it prominences, like those of the earth, which are visible to the eye.
“the god visits the island every nineteen years, the period in which the return of the stars to the same place in the heavens is accomplished, and for this reason the nineteen year period is called by the Greeks the “year of Meton.”
“At the time of this appearance the God Apollo plays on the cithara and dances continuously the night through from the vernal equinox 21st of March until the rising of the Pleiades May, expressing in this manner his delight in his successes.
The kings of this city … are called Boreades, since they are descendants of Boreas, ‘and the succession to these positions is always kept in their family.”
The land of Hyperborea appears in several myths. The first of these was the story of Phaethon, the boy who tried to fly the chariot of the sun, but lost control, and was struck down by Zeus with a thunderbolt.
“His flaming body fell into the Hyperborean river Eridanos, where his mourning sisters, the Heliades, gathered and were transformed into amber-shedding poplar trees. His friend Kyknos, in his grief, leapt into the bitumen lake of Phaethon’s fall, and was transformed into a swan. Hyperboreans afterwards leapt in this same very lake as they were approaching death and were transformed into singing white swans. The bird migrated to the Lydian river Kaystros and other places in the south, but remained mute beyond its homeland. ”
THE REAL STORY
Atlantis was  equal to Hyperborea in all things pertaining to civilisation. However, It could not compete in philosophy and magic and was resentful of its Northern equivalent.
This why the war started, and why Atlantis lost this war, the last it ever fought, before disappearing in a horrible earthquake, volcanic eruption and ensuing flood. The climate change which happened soon after, caused the whole story to be forgotten by almost everyone, except the Egyptian priests who recorded this fact.
It is very possible that some Atlantean priests were already in Egypt before the cataclysm and kept their traditions in secret during the following millennia.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY and REFERENCES
•    Aulus Hirtius, Bellum Gallicum 8.26–31.
•    Babbitt, Elwood D., with Charles Hapgood editor; God Within, A Testament of Vishnu
•    Babbitt, Elwood D., with Charles Hapgood editor; Talks with Christ and his teachers : through the psychic gift of Elwood Babbitt, 1981
•    Bandle, Oskar et al. 2002, The Nordic Languages: An International Handbook of the History of the North Germanic Languages. Volume I, Ed. by Oskar Bandle et al. Portland, OR, USA
•    Berlitz, C. 1969, The Mystery of Atlantis
•    Berlitz, C. 1972, Mysteries from Forgotten Worlds
•    Berlitz, C. 1977, Without a Trace
•    Berlitz, C. Atlantis – The Eight Continent G. P. Putnams Sons., New York, 1984
•    Berlitz, C. Atlantis: the lost continent revealed, Macmillan, London, 1984
•    Berlitz, C. Doomsday 1999 A.D. 1981
•    Berlitz, C. The Dragon’s Triangle 1989
•    Berlitz, C. The Lost Ship of Noah: In Search of the Ark at Ararat 1987
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1.    http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/evolution/last-extinction.html
2.    http://bigthink.com/ideas/21447
3.    http://metareligion.com/World_Religions/Ancient_religions/Flood_hisths/flood_hisths_africa.htm
4.    http://www.abebooks.com/.
5.    http://www.adventuresunlimitedpress.com/proddetail.php?prod=AA12
6.    http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/Canopy/7979/indian/
7.    http://www.summitpost.org/mountain/rock/150576/mount-jefferson.html.
8.    http://myfwc.com/viewing/recreation/wmas/lead/aucilla/history/
9.    http://archaeology.about.com/od/plthroughpo/a/Potatoes.htm
10.    http://www.sentex.net/~tcc/michwls.html
11.    http://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/9300-year-old-frozen-bison-mummy-found-siberia
12.    http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/11/131120-science-native-american-people-migration-siberia-genetics/
13.    http://www.crystalinks.com/atlantistheories.htm http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/474227/pre-Columbian-civilizations/69339/Incipient-agriculture-6500-1500-bc
14.    http://agronwww.agron.iastate.edu/Courses/agron212/readings/corn_history.htm
15.    http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/Y3841E/y3841e04.htm
16.    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC29388/
17.    http://farma.qfb.umich.mx/maizetxt.htm
18.    http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-23226796
19.    http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/323/5919/1332

20 .  http://www.creationscience.com/onlinebook/FrozenMammoths20.html

21.   http://www.madehow.com/Volume-5/Frozen-Vegetable.html

22.   http://www.dailystormer.com/24000-year-old-remains-of-siberian-boy-link-europeans-and-american-indians/

23.   http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Article/1198646

 

 

*Britt du Fournet is the nom de plume of Brittia Dartige du Fournet

*DUBLIN. IRELAND.  (brittnearfm@hotmail.com)

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